(1/51) Molecular characterization of the genes pcaG and pcaH, encoding protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase, which are essential for vanillin catabolism in Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199.
Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 is able to utilize eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol), vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde), or protocatechuate as the sole carbon source for growth. Mutants of this strain which were impaired in the catabolism of vanillin but retained the ability to utilize eugenol or protocatechuate were obtained after nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis. One mutant (SK6169) was used as recipient of a Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 genomic library in cosmid pVK100, and phenotypic complementation was achieved with a 5.8-kbp EcoRI fragment (E58). The amino acid sequences deduced from two corresponding open reading frames (ORF) identified on E58 revealed high degrees of homology to pcaG and pcaH, encoding the two subunits of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase. Three additional ORF most probably encoded a 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-hydroxylase (PobA) and two putative regulatory proteins, which exhibited homology to PcaQ of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and PobR of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively. Since mutant SK6169 was also complemented by a subfragment of E58 that harbored only pcaH, this mutant was most probably lacking a functional beta subunit of the protocatechuate 3, 4-dioxygenase. Since this mutant was still able to grow on protocatechuate and lacked protocatechuate 4,5-dioxygenase and protocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenase, the degradation had to be catalyzed by different enzymes. Two other mutants (SK6184 and SK6190), which were also impaired in the catabolism of vanillin, were not complemented by fragment E58. Since these mutants accumulated 3-carboxy muconolactone during cultivation on eugenol, they most probably exhibited a defect in a step of the catabolic pathway following the ortho cleavage. Moreover, in these mutants cyclization of 3-carboxymuconic acid seems to occur by a syn absolute stereochemical course, which is normally only observed for cis, cis-muconate lactonization in pseudomonads. In conclusion, vanillin is degraded through the ortho-cleavage pathway in Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 whereas protocatechuate could also be metabolized via a different pathway in the mutants. (+info)
(2/51) The physiological contribution of Acinetobacter PcaK, a transport system that acts upon protocatechuate, can be masked by the overlapping specificity of VanK.
VanK is the fourth member of the ubiquitous major facilitator superfamily of transport proteins to be identified that, together with PcaK, BenK, and MucK, contributes to aromatic catabolism in Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1. VanK and PcaK have overlapping specificity for p-hydroxybenzoate and, most clearly, for protocatechuate: inactivation of both proteins severely impairs growth with protocatechuate, and the activity of either protein alone can mask the phenotype associated with inactivation of its homolog. Furthermore, vanK pcaK double-knockout mutants appear completely unable to grow in liquid culture with the hydroaromatic compound quinate, although such cells on plates convert quinate to protocatechuate, which then accumulates extracellularly and is readily visible as purple staining. This provides genetic evidence that quinate is converted to protocatechuate in the periplasm and is in line with the early argument that quinate catabolism should be physically separated from aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in the cytoplasm so as to avoid potential competition for intermediates common to both pathways. Previous studies of aromatic catabolism in Acinetobacter have taken advantage of the ability to select directly strains that contain a spontaneous mutation blocking the beta-ketoadipate pathway and preventing the toxic accumulation of carboxymuconate. By using this procedure, strains with a mutation in structural or regulatory genes blocking degradation of vanillate, p-hydroxybenzoate, or protocatechuate were selected. In this study, the overlapping specificity of the VanK and PcaK permeases was exploited to directly select strains with a mutation in either vanK or pcaK. Spontaneous mutations identified in vanK include a hot spot for frameshift mutation due to contraction of a G6 mononucleotide repeat as well as point mutations producing amino acid substitutions useful for analysis of VanK structure and function. Preliminary second-site suppression analysis using transformation-facilitated PCR mutagenesis in one VanK mutant gave results similar to those using LacY, the prototypic member of the major facilitator superfamily, consistent with the two proteins having a similar mechanism of action. The selection for transport mutants described here for Acinetobacter may also be applicable to Pseudomonas putida, where the PcaK permease has an additional role in chemotaxis. (+info)
(3/51) Substitution, insertion, deletion, suppression, and altered substrate specificity in functional protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenases.
Protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase is a member of a family of bacterial enzymes that cleave the aromatic rings of their substrates between two adjacent hydroxyl groups, a key reaction in microbial metabolism of varied environmental chemicals. In an appropriate genetic background, it is possible to select for Acinetobacter strains containing spontaneous mutations blocking expression of pcaH or -G, genes encoding the alpha and beta subunits of protocatechuate 3, 4-dioxygenase. The crystal structure of the Acinetobacter oxygenase has been determined, and this knowledge affords us the opportunity to understand how mutations alter function in the enzyme. An earlier investigation had shown that a large fraction of spontaneous mutations inactivating Acinetobacter protocatechuate oxygenase are either insertions or large deletions. Therefore, the prior procedure of mutant selection was modified to isolate Acinetobacter strains in which mutations within pcaH or -G cause a heat-sensitive phenotype. These mutations affected residues distributed throughout the linear amino acid sequences of PcaH and PcaG and impaired the dioxygenase to various degrees. Four of 16 mutants had insertions or deletions in the enzyme ranging in size from 1 to 10 amino acid residues, highlighting areas of the protein where large structural changes can be tolerated. To further understand how protein structure influences function, we isolated strains in which the phenotypes of three different deletion mutations in pcaH or -G were suppressed either by a spontaneous mutation or by a PCR-generated random mutation introduced into the Acinetobacter chromosome by natural transformation. The latter procedure was also used to identify a single amino acid substitution in PcaG that conferred activity towards catechol sufficient for growth with benzoate in a strain in which catechol 1,2-dioxygenase was inactivated. (+info)
(4/51) Characterization of the protocatechuic acid catabolic gene cluster from Streptomyces sp. strain 2065.
Protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (EC 188.8.131.52) catalyzes the ring cleavage step in the catabolism of aromatic compounds through the protocatechuate branch of the beta-ketoadipate pathway. A protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase was purified from Streptomyces sp. strain 2065 grown in p-hydroxybenzoate, and the N-terminal sequences of the beta- and alpha-subunits were obtained. PCR amplification was used for the cloning of the corresponding genes, and DNA sequencing of the flanking regions showed that the pcaGH genes belonged to a 6. 5-kb protocatechuate catabolic gene cluster; at least seven genes in the order pcaIJFHGBL appear to be transcribed unidirectionally. Analysis of the cluster revealed the presence of a pcaL homologue which encodes a fused gamma-carboxymuconolactone decarboxylase/beta-ketoadipate enol-lactone hydrolase previously identified in the pca gene cluster from Rhodococcus opacus 1CP. The pcaIJ genes encoded proteins with a striking similarity to succinyl-coenzyme A (CoA):3-oxoacid CoA transferases of eukaryotes and contained an indel which is strikingly similar between high-G+C gram-positive bacteria and eukaryotes. (+info)
(5/51) The 1.8 A crystal structure of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase reveals a novel hydrophobic helical zipper as a subunit linker.
BACKGROUND: Intradiol dioxygenases catalyze the critical ring-cleavage step in the conversion of catecholate derivatives to citric acid cycle intermediates. Catechol 1,2-dioxygenases (1, 2-CTDs) have a rudimentary design structure - a homodimer with one catalytic non-heme ferric ion per monomer, that is (alphaFe(3+))(2). This is in contrast to the archetypical intradiol dioxygenase protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (3,4-PCD), which forms more diverse oligomers, such as (alphabetaFe(3+))(2-12). RESULTS: The crystal structure of 1,2-CTD from Acinetobacter sp. ADP1 (Ac 1,2-CTD) was solved by single isomorphous replacement and refined to 2.0 A resolution. The structures of the enzyme complexed with catechol and 4-methylcatechol were also determined at resolutions of 1.9 A and 1.8 A, respectively. While the characteristics of the iron ligands are similar, Ac 1,2-CTD differs from 3,4-PCDs in that only one subunit is used to fashion each active-site cavity. In addition, a novel 'helical zipper', consisting of five N-terminal helices from each subunit, forms the molecular dimer axis. Two phospholipids were unexpectedly found to bind within an 8 x 35 A hydrophobic tunnel along this axis. CONCLUSIONS: The helical zipper domain of Ac 1, 2-CTD has no equivalent in other proteins of known structure. Sequence analysis suggests the domain is a common motif in all members of the 1,2-CTD family. Complexes with catechol and 4-methylcatechol are the highest resolution complex structures to date of an intradiol dioxygenase. Furthermore, they confirm several observations seen in 3,4-PCDs, including ligand displacement upon binding exogenous ligands. The structures presented here are the first of a new family of intradiol dioxygenases. (+info)
(6/51) Characterization of the genes for two protocatechuate 3, 4-dioxygenases from the 4-sulfocatechol-degrading bacterium Agrobacterium radiobacter strain S2.
The genes for two different protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenases (P34Os) were cloned from the 4-sulfocatechol-degrading bacterium Agrobacterium radiobacter strain S2 (DSMZ 5681). The pcaH1G1 genes encoded a P34O (P34O-I) which oxidized protocatechuate but not 4-sulfocatechol. These genes were part of a protocatechuate-degradative operon which strongly resembled the isofunctional operon from the protocatechuate-degrading strain Agrobacterium tumefaciens A348 described previously by D. Parke (FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 146:3-12, 1997). The second P34O (P34O-II), encoded by the pcaH2G2 genes, was functionally expressed and shown to convert protocatechuate and 4-sulfocatechol. A comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of PcaH-I and PcaH-II, and of PcaG-I and PcaG-II, with each other and with the corresponding sequences from the P34Os, from other bacterial genera suggested that the genes for the P34O-II were obtained by strain S2 by lateral gene transfer. The genes encoding the P34O-II were found in a putative operon together with two genes which, according to sequence alignments, encoded transport proteins. Further downstream from this putative operon, two open reading frames which code for a putative regulator protein of the IclR family and a putative 3-carboxymuconate cycloisomerase were identified. (+info)
(7/51) Positive selection for mutations affecting bioconversion of aromatic compounds in Agrobacterium tumefaciens: analysis of spontaneous mutations in the protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase gene.
A positive selection method for mutations affecting bioconversion of aromatic compounds was applied to a mutant strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens A348. The nucleotide sequence of the A348 pcaHGB genes, which encode protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (PcaHG) and beta-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate cycloisomerase (PcaB) for the first two steps in catabolism of the diphenolic protocatechuate, was determined. An omega element was introduced into the pcaB gene of A348, creating strain ADO2077. In the presence of phenolic compounds that can serve as carbon sources, growth of ADO2077 is inhibited due to accumulation of the tricarboxylate intermediate. The toxic effect, previously described for Acinetobacter sp., affords a powerful selection for suppressor mutations in genes required for upstream catabolic steps. By monitoring loss of the marker in pcaB, it was possible to determine that the formation of deletions was minimal compared to results obtained with Acinetobacter sp. Thus, the tricarboxylic acid trick in and of itself does not appear to select for large deletion mutations. The power of the selection was demonstrated by targeting the pcaHG genes of A. tumefaciens for spontaneous mutation. Sixteen strains carrying putative second-site mutations in pcaH or -G were subjected to sequence analysis. All single-site events, their mutations revealed no particular bias toward multibase deletions or unusual patterns: five (-1) frameshifts, one (+1) frameshift, one tandem duplication of 88 bp, one deletion of 92 bp, one nonsense mutation, and seven missense mutations. PcaHG is considered to be the prototypical ferric intradiol dioxygenase. The missense mutations served to corroborate the significance of active site amino acid residues deduced from crystal structures of PcaHG from Pseudomonas putida and Acinetobacter sp. as well as of residues in other parts of the enzyme. (+info)
(8/51) Key aromatic-ring-cleaving enzyme, protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase, in the ecologically important marine Roseobacter lineage.
Aromatic compound degradation in six bacteria representing an ecologically important marine taxon of the alpha-proteobacteria was investigated. Initial screens suggested that isolates in the Roseobacter lineage can degrade aromatic compounds via the beta-ketoadipate pathway, a catabolic route that has been well characterized in soil microbes. Six Roseobacter isolates were screened for the presence of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase, a key enzyme in the beta-ketoadipate pathway. All six isolates were capable of growth on at least three of the eight aromatic monomers presented (anthranilate, benzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, salicylate, vanillate, ferulate, protocatechuate, and coumarate). Four of the Roseobacter group isolates had inducible protocatechuate 3, 4-dioxygenase activity in cell extracts when grown on p-hydroxybenzoate. The pcaGH genes encoding this ring cleavage enzyme were cloned and sequenced from two isolates, Sagittula stellata E-37 and isolate Y3F, and in both cases the genes could be expressed in Escherichia coli to yield dioxygenase activity. Additional genes involved in the protocatechuate branch of the beta-ketoadipate pathway (pcaC, pcaQ, and pobA) were found to cluster with pcaGH in these two isolates. Pairwise sequence analysis of the pca genes revealed greater similarity between the two Roseobacter group isolates than between genes from either Roseobacter strain and soil bacteria. A degenerate PCR primer set targeting a conserved region within PcaH successfully amplified a fragment of pcaH from two additional Roseobacter group isolates, and Southern hybridization indicated the presence of pcaH in the remaining two isolates. This evidence of protocatechuate 3, 4-dioxygenase and the beta-ketoadipate pathway was found in all six Roseobacter isolates, suggesting widespread abilities to degrade aromatic compounds in this marine lineage. (+info)