(1/506) Effect of inhibition of cholesterol synthetic pathway on the activation of Ras and MAP kinase in mesangial cells.
Intermediary metabolites of cholesterol synthetic pathway are involved in cell proliferation. Lovastatin, an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, blocks mevalonate synthesis, and has been shown to inhibit mesangial cell proliferation associated with diverse glomerular diseases. Since inhibition of farnesylation and plasma membrane anchorage of the Ras proteins is one suggested mechanism by which lovastatin prevents cellular proliferation, we investigated the effect of lovastatin and key mevalonate metabolites on the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) and Ras in murine glomerular mesangial cells. The preincubation of mesangial cells with lovastatin inhibited the activation of MAP kinase stimulated by either FBS, PDGF, or EGF. Mevalonic acid and farnesyl-pyrophosphate, but not cholesterol or LDL, significantly prevented lovastatin-induced inhibition of agonist-stimulated MAP kinase. Lovastatin inhibited agonist-induced activation of Ras, and mevalonic acid and farnesylpyrophosphate antagonized this effect. Parallel to the MAP kinase and Ras data, lovastatin suppressed cell growth stimulated by serum, and mevalonic acid and farnesylpyrophosphate prevented lovastatin-mediated inhibition of cellular growth. These results suggest that lovastatin, by inhibiting the synthesis of farnesol, a key isoprenoid metabolite of mevalonate, modulates Ras-mediated cell signaling events associated with mesangial cell proliferation. (+info)
(2/506) The Escherichia coli homologue of yeast RER2, a key enzyme of dolichol synthesis, is essential for carrier lipid formation in bacterial cell wall synthesis.
We found in the Escherichia coli genome sequence a homologue of RER2, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene required for proper localization of an endoplasmic reticulum protein, and designated it rth (RER2 homologue). The disruption of this gene was lethal for E. coli. To reveal its biological function, we isolated temperature-sensitive mutants of the rth gene. The mutant cells became swollen and burst at the nonpermissive temperature, indicating that their cell wall integrity was defective. Further analysis showed that the mutant cells were deficient in the activity of cis-prenyltransferase, namely, undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase, a key enzyme of the carrier lipid formation of peptidoglycan synthesis. The cellular level of undecaprenyl phosphate was in fact markedly decreased in the mutants. These results are consistent with the fact that the Rer2 homologue of Micrococcus luteus shows undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase activity (N. Shimizu, T. Koyama, and K. Ogura, J. Biol. Chem. 273:19476-19481, 1998) and demonstrate that E. coli Rth is indeed responsible for the maintenance of cell wall rigidity. Our work on the yeast rer2 mutants shows that they are defective in the activity of cis-prenyltransferase, namely, dehydrodolichyl diphosphate synthase, a key enzyme of dolichol synthesis. Taking these data together, we conclude that the RER2 gene family encodes cis-prenyltransferase, which plays an essential role in cell wall biosynthesis in bacteria and in dolichol synthesis in eukaryotic cells and has been well conserved during evolution. (+info)
(3/506) Comprehensive evaluation of isoprenoid biosynthesis regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilizing the Genome Reporter Matrix.
Gene expression profiling is rapidly becoming a mainstay of functional genomic studies. However, there have been relatively few studies of how the data from expression profiles integrate with more classic approaches to examine gene expression. This study used gene expression profiling of a portion of the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to explore the impact of blocks in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway on the expression of genes and the regulation of this pathway. Approximately 50% of the genes whose expression was altered by blocks in isoprenoid biosynthesis were genes previously known to participate in the pathway. In contrast to this simple correspondence, the regulatory patterns revealed by different blocks, and in particular by antifungal azoles, was complex in a manner not anticipated by earlier studies. (+info)
(4/506) Polyisoprenyl phosphate (PIPP) signaling regulates phospholipase D activity: a 'stop' signaling switch for aspirin-triggered lipoxin A4.
It is of wide interest to understand how opposing extracellular signals (positive or negative) are translated into intracellular signaling events. Receptor-ligand interactions initiate the generation of bioactive lipids by human neutrophils (PMN), which serve as signals to orchestrate cellular responses important in host defense and inflammation. We recently identified a novel polyisoprenyl phosphate (PIPP) signaling pathway and found that one of its components, presqualene diphosphate (PSDP), is a potent negative intracellular signal in PMN that regulates superoxide anion generation by several stimuli, including phosphatidic acid. We determined intracellular PIPP signaling by autocoids with opposing actions on PMN: leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a potent chemoattractant, and lipoxin A4 (LXA4), a 'stop signal' for recruitment. LTB4 receptor activation initiated a rapid decrease in PSDP levels concurrent with activation of PLD and cellular responses. In sharp contrast, activation of the LXA4 receptor reversed LTB4-initiated PSDP remodeling, leading to an accumulation of PSDP and potent inhibition of both PLD and superoxide anion generation. Thus, an inverse relationship was established for PSDP levels and PLD activity with two PMN ligands that evoke opposing responses. In addition, PSDP directly inhibited both isolated human recombinant (Ki = 6 nM) and plant (Ki = 20 nM) PLD. Together, these findings link PIPP remodeling to intracellular regulation of PMN function and suggest a role for PIPPs as lipid repressors in signal transduction, a novel mechanism that may also explain aspirin's suppressive actions in vivo in cell signaling. (+info)
(5/506) The LPP1 and DPP1 gene products account for most of the isoprenoid phosphate phosphatase activities in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Two genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, LPP1 and DPP1, with homology to a mammalian phosphatidic acid (PA) phosphatase were identified and disrupted. Neither single nor combined deletions resulted in growth or secretion phenotypes. As observed previously (Toke, D. A., Bennett, W. L., Dillon, D. A., Wu, W.-I., Chen, X., Ostrander, D. B., Oshiro, J., Cremesti, A., Voelker, D. R., Fischl, A. S., and Carman, G. M. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 3278-3284; Toke, D. A., Bennett, W. L., Oshiro, J., Wu, W.-I., Voelker, D. R., and Carman, G. M. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 14331-14338), the disruption of DPP1 and LPP1 produced profound losses of Mg2+-independent PA phosphatase activity. The coincident attenuation of hydrolytic activity against diacylglycerol pyrophosphate prompted an examination of the effects of these disruptions on hydrolysis of isoprenoid pyrophosphates. Disruption of either LPP1 or DPP1 caused respective decreases of about 25 and 75% in Mg2+-independent hydrolysis of several isoprenoid phosphates by particulate fractions isolated from these cells. The particulate and cytosolic fractions from the double disruption (lpp1Delta dpp1Delta) showed essentially complete loss of Mg2+-independent hydrolytic activity toward dolichyl phosphate (dolichyl-P), dolichyl pyrophosphate (dolichyl-P-P), farnesyl pyrophosphate (farnesyl-P-P), and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (geranylgeranyl-P-P). However, a modest Mg2+-stimulated activity toward PA and dolichyl-P was retained in cytosol from lpp1Delta dpp1Delta cells. The action of Dpp1p on isoprenyl pyrophosphates was confirmed by characterization of the hydrolysis of geranylgeranyl-P-P by the purified protein. These results indicate that LPP1 and DPP1 account for most of the hydrolytic activities toward dolichyl-P-P, dolichyl-P, farnesyl-P-P, and geranylgeranyl-P-P but also suggest that yeast contain other enzymes capable of dephosphorylating these essential isoprenoid intermediates. (+info)
(6/506) Evidence for covalent attachment of diphytanylglyceryl phosphate to the cell-surface glycoprotein of Halobacterium halobium.
In a previous study, we demonstrated the occurrence of novel proteins modified with a diphytanylglyceryl group in thioether linkage in Halobacterium halobium (Sagami, H., Kikuchi, A., and Ogura, K. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 14851-14854). In this study, we further investigated protein isoprenoid modification in this halobacterium using several radioactive tracers such as [3H]geranylgeranyl diphosphate. One of the radioactive bands observed on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis corresponded to a periodic acid-Schiff stain-positive protein (200 kDa). Radioactive and periodic acid-Schiff stain-positive peptides (28 kDa) were obtained by trypsin digestion of the labeled proteins. The radioactive materials released by acid treatment of the peptides showed a similar mobility to dolichyl (C55) phosphate on a normal-phase thin-layer plate. However, radioactive hydrolysates obtained by acid phosphatase treatment co-migrated not with dolichol (C55-65), but with diphytanylglycerol on both reverse- and normal-phase thin-layer plates. The mass spectrum of the hydrolysate was also coincident with that of diphytanylglycerol. The partial amino acid sequences of the 28-kDa peptides were found in a fragment (amino acids 731-816) obtainable by trypsin cleavage of the known cell-surface glycoprotein of this halobacterium. These results indicate that the cell-surface glycoprotein (200 kDa) is modified with diphytanylglyceryl phosphate. (+info)
(7/506) Role of RhoA activation in the growth and morphology of a murine prostate tumor cell line.
Prostate cancer cells derived from transgenic mice with adenocarcinoma of the prostate (TRAMP cells) were treated with the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, lovastatin. This caused inactivation of the small GTPase RhoA, actin stress fiber disassembly, cell rounding, growth arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, cell detachment and apoptosis. Addition of geranylgeraniol (GGOL) in the presence of lovastatin, to stimulate protein geranylgeranylation, prevented lovastatin's effects. That is, RhoA was activated, actin stress fibers were assembled, the cells assumed a flat morphology and cell growth resumed. The following observations support an essential role for RhoA in TRAMP cell growth: (1) TRAMP cells expressing dominant-negative RhoA (T19N) mutant protein displayed few actin stress fibers and grew at a slower rate than controls (35 h doubling time for cells expressing RhoA (T19N) vs 20 h for untransfected cells); (2) TRAMP cells expressing constitutively active RhoA (Q63L) mutant protein displayed a contractile phenotype and grew faster than controls (13 h doubling time). Interestingly, addition of farnesol (FOL) with lovastatin, to stimulate protein farnesylation, prevented lovastatin-induced cell rounding, cell detachment and apoptosis, and stimulated cell spreading to a spindle shaped morphology. However, RhoA remained inactive and growth arrest persisted. The morphological effects of FOL addition were prevented in TRAMP cells expressing dominant-negative H-Ras (T17N) mutant protein. Thus, it appears that H-Ras is capable of inducing cell spreading, but incapable of supporting cell proliferation, in the absence of geranylgeranylated proteins like RhoA. (+info)
(8/506) The prostacyclin receptor is isoprenylated. Isoprenylation is required for efficient receptor-effector coupling.
The prostacyclin receptor (IP), a G protein-coupled receptor, mediates the actions of the prostanoid prostacyclin and its mimetics. IPs from a number of species each contain identically conserved putative isoprenylation CAAX motifs, each with the sequence CSLC. Metabolic labeling of human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells stably overexpressing the hemagluttinin epitope-tagged IP in the presence of [(3)H]mevalonolactone established that the mouse IP is isoprenylated. Studies involving in vitro assays confirmed that recombinant forms of the human and mouse IP are modified by carbon 15 farnesyl isoprenoids. Disruption of isoprenylation, by site-directed mutagenesis of Cys(414) to Ser(414), within the CAAX motif, abolished isoprenylation of IP(SSLC) both in vitro and in transfected cells. Scatchard analysis of the wild type (IP) and mutant (IP(SSLC)) receptor confirmed that each receptor exhibited high and low affinity binding sites for [(3)H]iloprost, which were not influenced by receptor isoprenylation. Whereas stable cell lines overexpressing IP generated significant agonist (iloprost and cicaprost)-mediated increases in cAMP relative to nontransfected cells, cAMP generation by IP(SSLC) cells was not significantly different from the control, nontransfected HEK 293 cells. Moreover, co-expression of the alpha (alpha) subunit of Gs generated significant augmentations in cAMP by IP but not by IP(SSLC) cells. Whereas IP also demonstrated significant, dose-dependent increases in [Ca(2+)](i) in response to iloprost or cicaprost compared with the nontransfected HEK 293 cells, mobilization of [Ca(2+)](i) by IP(SSLC) was significantly impaired. Co-transfection of cells with either Galpha(q) or Galpha(11) resulted in significant augmentation of agonist-mediated [Ca(2+)](i) mobilization by IP cells but not by IP(SSLC) cells or by the control, HEK 293 cells. In addition, inhibition of isoprenylation by lovastatin treatment significantly reduced agonist-mediated cAMP generation by IP in comparison to the nonisoprenylated beta(2) adrenergic receptor or nontreated cells. Hence, isoprenylation of IP does not influence ligand binding but is required for efficient coupling to the effectors adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C. (+info)