(9/870) Merging universal and indicated prevention programs: the Fast Track model. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.
Fast Track is a multisite, multicomponent preventive intervention for young children at high risk for long-term antisocial behavior. Based on a comprehensive developmental model, this intervention includes a universal-level classroom program plus social-skill training, academic tutoring, parent training, and home visiting to improve competencies and reduce problems in a high-risk group of children selected in kindergarten. The theoretical principles and clinical strategies utilized in the Fast Track Project are described to illustrate the interplay between basic developmental research, the understanding of risk and protective factors, and a research-based model of preventive intervention that integrates universal and indicated models of prevention. (+info)
(10/870) The distress and risk assessment method (DRAM).
Our aim was to judge the influence of preoperative psychological disturbance on the outcome of lumbar discectomy. We evaluated 66 patients, before and after operation, using a self-administered questionnaire. Disability was assessed using the Oswestry disability index and psychological disturbance the Distress and Risk Assessment Method (DRAM) score. Patients were classified as normal, at risk or distressed, and the outcome of surgery in the three groups was compared at a follow-up of six months. The mean self-reported preoperative disability was significantly higher in those with psychological disturbance. A total of 54 patients (82%) returned completed postoperative questionnaires. Postoperative disability scores at six months were not significantly different in the three risk groups. Psychological disturbance improved after surgery. Our study suggests that the early outcome of lumbar discectomy is not affected by preoperative psychological disturbance. We conclude that a patient with a symptomatic prolapsed intervertebral disc should not be denied surgery on the basis of preoperative psychological assessment. (+info)
(11/870) Can personality traits predict increases in manic and depressive symptoms?
BACKGROUND: There has been limited research investigating personality traits as predictors of manic and depressive symptoms in bipolar individuals. The present study investigated the relation between personality traits and the course of bipolar disorder. The purpose of this study was to identify specific personality traits that predict the course of manic and depressive symptoms experienced by bipolar individuals. METHODS: The sample consisted of 39 participants with bipolar I disorder assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Personality was assessed using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. The Modified Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale were used to assess symptom severity on a monthly basis. RESULTS: Consistent with previous research on unipolar depression, high Neuroticism predicted increases in depressive symptoms across time while controlling for baseline symptoms. Additionally, high Conscientiousness, particularly the Achievement Striving facet, predicted increases in manic symptoms across time. LIMITATIONS: The current study was limited by the small number of participants, the reliance on a shortened version of a self-report personality measure, and the potential state-dependency of the personality measures. CONCLUSIONS: Specific personality traits may assist in predicting bipolar symptoms across time. Further studies are needed to tease apart the state-dependency of personality. (+info)
(12/870) Exposure to violence, coping resources, and psychological adjustment of South African children.
The effects of exposure to direct and vicarious political, family, and community violence on the adjustment of 625 six-year-old black South African children was examined. Ambient community violence was most consistently related to children's psychosocial outcomes. Resources in the form of individual child resilience, maternal coping, and positive family relationships were found to mitigate the adverse impact in all the assessed domains of children's functioning. (+info)
(13/870) Comparing two different methods of identifying alcohol related problems in the emergency department: a real chance to intervene?
OBJECTIVES: To examine the feasibility of screening for alcohol problems in a representative flow sample of patients attending a busy UK emergency department. To compare two methods of identifying alcohol related problems in the emergency department. METHODS: Brief interview administered by the same interviewer to a representative flow sample of 429 patients attending a single accident and emergency department over a six week period. Measures included a CAGE questionnaire and assessments by the patient and staff as to whether the attendance was alcohol related. RESULTS: 413 patients (96%) were successfully screened. Of these, 115 (28%) patients were considered to have an alcohol related attendance on the basis of the CAGE questionnaire or the staff assessment. Head injuries and psychiatric presentations were particularly likely to be associated with alcohol misuse. Compared with those identified by staff, patients scoring above threshold on the CAGE were more likely to attend during routine working hours and recognise they had an alcohol problem. CONCLUSIONS: Emergency departments may provide an opportunity for the early prevention of alcohol related difficulties. However, patients with alcohol problems who present to the emergency department are not a homogenous group. Different screening methods identify different groups of patients, who in turn may respond to different forms of intervention. Further research examining the efficacy and feasibility of different alcohol treatment approaches is needed to enable us to target specific interventions to those patients who might most benefit. (+info)
(14/870) Improving detection of alcohol misuse in patients presenting to an accident and emergency department.
OBJECTIVES: To assess and improve deployment of a brief test for alcohol misuse: the Paddington Alcohol Test (PAT). Design-Prospective study of the effects of audit feedback. SETTING: An urban accident and emergency department. SUBJECTS: Senior house officers (SHO) (n = 13). OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: PAT use and categorisation of patients for each SHO; observational analysis of presenting complaints according to PAT. RESULTS: 1062 of 1737 patients (61.1%) were defined as PAT possible-that is, presented with > or = one complaint listed on the PAT test proforma. In month 1, PAT uptake was poor. PAT use improved significantly when feedback was instituted (p<0.0001). The response to audit and feedback showed marked inter-SHO variation. When feedback was withdrawn (month 4), there was a significant reduction in PAT use (p=0.003). Three other indices of detection followed this trend: (a) number of PAT positive patients identified, (b) proportion of PAT possible patients identified as PAT positive, and (c) number of PAT positive patients referred to the alcoholic health worker. The 10 most common PAT positive categories, accounting for 77% of all PAT positive complaints were: fall > collapse (including "fit", "blackout") > head injury (including "facial injury") > assault (including "domestic violence" and 'other') > nonspecific gastrointestinal problem > "unwell" > psychiatric (including "depression", "overdose", "confusion") > cardiac (including "chest pain" and "palpitations") > self neglect > repeat attendance. CONCLUSIONS: Ongoing audit with feedback improves both PAT use and detection of alcohol misuse. The PAT is now simpler including only 10 conditions, which should further aid its use. (+info)
(15/870) Observational assessment of family functioning at mealtime in preschool children with cystic fibrosis.
OBJECTIVE: To examine functioning during a dinner meal in families of a child with a chronic illness that requires dietary treatment recommendations, as compared to families of a child without a chronic illness. METHODS: Ratings of seven dimensions of family functioning on the McMaster Mealtime Family Interaction Coding System (MICS) were obtained on 29 families of children with CF and 29 families of children with no chronic illness, ages 2 to 6 years, during a videotaped dinner meal at home. RESULTS: Ratings of families with a child with CF were significantly lower than those for families of children without a chronic illness on Overall Family Functioning and five of the six MICS dimensions: Communication, Interpersonal Involvement, Affect Management, Behavior Control, and Role Allocation and approached significance on the Task Accomplishment dimension. The ratings of families of a child with CF were in the "clinically significant" range on all subcales, including Task ACCOMPLISHMENT. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that family functioning at mealtimes may be different in families of children with CF in which explicit dietary guidelines exist than in families of children with no illness or dietary guidelines. These results are discussed in terms of global family functioning and treatment approaches to dietary treatment recommendations. (+info)
(16/870) The use of dental anxiety questionnaires: a survey of a group of UK dental practitioners.
AIM: To determine the frequency of use of dental anxiety assessment questionnaires and factors associated with their use in a group of UK dental practitioners. METHOD: A postal questionnaire to all 328 dentists whose names appear in the British Society for Behavioural Sciences in Dentistry Directory. Information collected for each practitioner included gender, year of qualification, type of practice in which anxious dental patients were treated, treatment used to manage anxious dental patients, type and frequency of use of dental anxiety assessment indices. RESULTS: Questionnaires were returned from 275 (84%) practitioners. 269 were analyzed. Only 54 practitioners (20%) used adult dental anxiety assessment questionnaires and only 46 (17%) used child dental anxiety assessment questionnaires. Male practitioners were more likely to report questionnaire use in comparison with females (P< 0.05), when treating dentally anxious adults (26% v 14%). In addition, practitioners providing intravenous sedation were more likely to use an adult dental anxiety questionnaire (P < 0.04) than those who did not use intravenous sedation (29% v 15%). The type of treatment provided had a significant association with the use of child dental anxiety. Those providing general anaesthesia (P = 0.03) and hypnosis (P = 0.01) for dentally anxious children were more inclined to use a questionnaire. CONCLUSION: The use of pre-treatment dental anxiety assessment questionnaires was low in this group of dentists. Male practitioners and those providing intravenous sedation, general anaesthesia or hypnosis seem more likely to use dental anxiety assessment questionnaires. (+info)