(57/870) Translating multiple assessment techniques into an intervention selection model for classrooms.

Translating current research to school-based clinical practice highlights issues not often encountered in laboratory settings. With the assistance of a consultant, teachers conducted functional analyses, brief multielement treatment comparisons, and controlled treatment evaluations under naturalistic conditions in the classroom. Teachers also provided input on treatment selection. Treatment integrity data collected throughout the study suggested that teachers implemented analyses and treatments with high integrity. The functional analysis outcomes combined with effectiveness and acceptability data led to the selection of interventions that reduced problem behavior in the classrooms for each of 3 children.  (+info)

(58/870) Use of descriptive and experimental analyses to identify the functional properties of aberrant behavior in school settings.

We conducted descriptive and experimental analyses of aberrant behavior in school settings with 2 children with autism, using teachers as assessors. Experimental functional analyses carried out by the investigators were followed by training teachers to conduct a descriptive analysis and a classroom experimental analysis. A comparison of the assessment procedures showed that each procedure identified negative reinforcement as a maintaining variable for aberrant behavior. The teacher implemented an intervention based on the assessment with mixed results. We then replicated the initial results by having the first teacher train a second teacher to carry out the two assessment procedures. The results of these analyses were also in agreement, again identifying negative reinforcement as a variable maintaining aberrant behavior. An intervention based on negative reinforcement was then successfully implemented. These results suggest the applicability and utility of functional analyses carried out in school settings.  (+info)

(59/870) Prolonged untreated illness duration from prodromal onset predicts outcome in first episode psychoses.

Several, although not all, studies suggest that prolonged duration of untreated illness (DUI) predicts poor outcome in psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. It is unclear whether this association can be explained by factors such as baseline deficits or poor premorbid adjustment. First episode psychotic patients were evaluated at 1 and 2 years following baseline evaluations. Predictive measures showing significant correlations with outcome were entered in multiple regression analyses with Strauss-Carpenter scale (SC) and Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF) outcome scores as dependent variables. Illness duration computed from the onset of the prodrome (DUI-pro), used both as a dichotomous and as a continuous measure, highly significantly predicted both GAF and SC scores at 2 years. On the other hand, baseline functioning significantly predicted the 1-year but not the 2-year outcome. When Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS) scores were additionally entered into the analyses in a smaller subset, the relation between DUI-pro and the 2-year outcome scores remained significant. Significant associations were also seen between outcome and baseline neuropsychological deficits involving attention and memory. Further research is needed to examine whether prolonged untreated illness is simply associated with poor outcome or plays a causal role in relation to outcome. The latter, if true, would strongly support therapeutic intervention efforts in the prodromal and early psychotic phases of schizophrenia.  (+info)

(60/870) The relations of effortful control and impulsivity to children's resiliency and adjustment.

The unique relations of effortful control and impulsivity to resiliency and adjustment were examined when children were 4.5 to 8 years old, and 2 years later. Parents and teachers reported on all constructs and children's attentional persistence was observed. In concurrent structural equation models, effortful control and impulsivity uniquely and directly predicted resiliency and externalizing problems and indirectly predicted internalizing problems (through resiliency). Teacher-reported anger moderated the relations of effortful control and impulsivity to externalizing problems. In the longitudinal model, all relations held at T2 except for the path from impulsivity to externalizing problems. Evidence of bidirectional effects also was obtained. The results indicate that effortful control and impulsivity are distinct constructs with some unique prediction of resiliency and adjustment.  (+info)

(61/870) Social function in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: associations with personality, symptoms and neurocognition.

BACKGROUND: Research has indicated that stable individual differences in personality exist among persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders predating illness onset that are linked to symptoms and self appraised quality of life. Less is known about how closely individual differences in personality are uniquely related to levels of social relationships, a domain of dysfunction in schizophrenia more often linked in the literature with symptoms and neurocognitive deficits. This study tested the hypothesis that trait levels of personality as defined using the five-factor model of personality would be linked to social function in schizophrenia. METHODS: A self-report measure of the five factor model of personality was gathered along with ratings of social function, symptoms and assessments of neurocognition for 65 participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. RESULTS: Univariate correlations and stepwise multiple regression indicated that frequency of social interaction was predicted by higher levels of the trait of Agreeableness, fewer negative symptoms, better verbal memory and at the trend level, lesser Neuroticism (R2 =.42, p <.0001). In contrast, capacity for intimacy was predicted by fewer negative symptoms, higher levels of Agreeableness, Openness, and Conscientiousness and at the trend level, fewer positive symptoms (R2 =.67, p <.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the findings of this study suggest that person-centered variables such as personality, may account for some of the broad differences seen in outcome in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, including social outcomes. One interpretation of the results of this study is that differences in personality combine with symptoms and neurocognitive deficits to affect how persons with schizophrenia are able to form and sustain social connections with others.  (+info)

(62/870) Assessing multitasking in children with ADHD using a modified Six Elements Test.

The study was designed to investigate whether children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) demonstrate a deficit in multitasking, measured by their performance on a modified Six Elements Test designed for use with children (C-SET). The C-SET was administered to 38 children, aged 7-13. The subjects comprised two groups: an ADHD sample (n = 19) and a community control sample (n = 19). The results show that the ADHD group performed significantly worse on the C-SET, in that they attempted fewer tasks than the control group. However, they did not commit more rule breaks. These findings suggest that children with ADHD did not have problems with retrospective memory, as they were as able to remember the rules as the control group. Rather, the ADHD children appeared to have a specific deficit in monitoring their ongoing behaviors and generating useful strategies for task completion, as indicated by the decreased number of tasks attempted compared to the control group. The number of tasks tried on the C-SET correlated significantly with a measure of working memory, but not with a measure of response inhibition. C-SET total tasks tried also correlated with all subscales of the Conner's Parent Rating Scale-Revised (Short Version). The C-SET appears to be a useful measure of rule-governed multitasking behavior in children.  (+info)

(63/870) Smoking and the Five-Factor Model of personality.

AIMS: Investigating the association between personality traits and smoking status using a comprehensive model of personality, the Five-Factor Model (FFM). DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. Setting Baltimore, MD, USA. Participants Adult elderly Americans (n = 1638). MEASUREMENTS: A self-administered survey on cigarette smoking and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). FINDINGS: Current smokers scored higher than never smokers on neuroticism and lower on agreeableness and conscientiousness; former smokers scored intermediate on these higher-order dimensions. Neuroticism was related to smoking particularly among individuals with low conscientiousness, as indicated by an interaction effect between the two factors. There were no differences on extraversion and openness to experience. At the lower-order facet level, smokers were characterized by inability to resist cravings (high impulsiveness), search for stimulation (high excitement-seeking), lack of perseverance (low self-discipline) and lack of careful consideration of the consequences of their actions (low deliberation). CONCLUSIONS: At the higher-order factor level, this study replicates and extends previous studies using a comprehensive model of personality (FFM). The greater specificity provided by the facet-level analysis appears to explain some of the conflicting results in the literature, and the use of an older sample provides insight especially into the former smokers group. Personality research may lead to a deeper understanding of cigarette smoking and can potentially contribute to policies and programs of smoking prevention and cessation.  (+info)

(64/870) Multidimensional assessment of personality in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures.

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) have evidence of maladaptive personality, and whether they have a single or several different typical pathological personality profiles. METHODS: Patients were recruited from the department of epileptology, Bonn, Germany. In all, 85 patients with PNES and 63 with epilepsy completed a postal questionnaire including the dimensional assessment of personality pathology - basic questionnaire (DAPP-BQ). The DAPP-BQ was also completed by 100 healthy volunteers. The groups were compared and the PNES group was subjected to cluster analysis. RESULTS: Patients with PNES had a greater degree of personality abnormality than clinical and non-clinical controls. There were several clusters of personality pathology. The profile of the largest cluster (n = 43) resembled that found in borderline personality disorder, that of the second largest (n = 37) was characterised by an overly controlled personality, that of the third (n = 4) was similar to the profile in avoidant personality disorder. Outcome differed between clusters. CONCLUSIONS: Maladaptive personality is common in patients with PNES. PNES are associated with several distinct profiles of pathological personality. This is relevant because outcome differed between profiles.  (+info)