(41/870) Double dissociation of social functioning in frontotemporal dementia.

BACKGROUND: Efforts to characterize changes in social functioning in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) have failed to elicit clear dissociation between frontal and temporal variants of the disease based on behavioral measures. METHODS: This study obtained premorbid and current first-degree relative ratings using an established measure of interpersonal functioning, the Interpersonal Adjectives Scales, to measure personality change in 16 patients with frontal variant (FLV) and 13 with temporal variant (TLV) FTD, and in a control group of 16 patients with AD. RESULTS: All three groups showed significant change over time in multiple domains, including increased introversion (FG) and submissiveness (HI). However, patients with both FTD subtypes evidenced significantly greater increases in overall interpersonal pathology vector length [VL] than did patients with AD, who remained within the normal range on all scores. Patients with FLV showed a 2 SD increase in submissiveness (HI), but their cold-heartedness (DE) change scores were not significantly different from those of patients with AD. Conversely, the TLV cold-heartedness (DE) score increased 2 SD compared to minimal change for the AD and FLV groups, yet change in submissiveness (HI) did not differentiate between AD and TLV groups. CONCLUSIONS: The Interpersonal Adjectives Scales differentiated both FTD groups from patients with AD on the basis of both degree and direction of personality change. Also, the two subtypes of FTD showed distinctly different patterns of change in social functioning: patients with temporal variant shifted toward severe interpersonal coldness with mild loss of dominance, whereas patients with frontal variant showed the opposite pattern.  (+info)

(42/870) Primary and secondary substance misusers: do they differ in substance-induced and substance-independent mental disorders?

AIMS: This study evaluated the primary/secondary distinction among substance misusers according to comorbid mental disorders. METHODS: A consecutive sample (n = 287) of DSM-IV substance dependents from public treatment facilities in two counties in Norway were assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. According to the debut of the first independent mental disorder, patients were divided into primary substance use disorder (SUD) (17%), secondary SUD (76%) and SUD in the same year as the first mental disorder (7%). RESULTS: A lifetime substance-independent mental disorder was found in 90%. Forty-two per cent had a combination of substance-independent and substance-induced mental disorders. Five per cent had substance-induced mental disorders only. Primary SUD patients comprised less women, and a lower number of substance-independent mental disorders. Secondary SUD patients had more major depression, phobic disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder. There were no differences between primary SUD and secondary SUD regarding the number of substance-induced disorders or the pattern of substance misuse. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical differences between primary and secondary SUD were small and do not support the distinction.  (+info)

(43/870) The prevalence and correlates of hazardous drinking in industrial workers: a study from Goa, India.

AIMS: This study aimed to describe the prevalence and associations of hazardous drinking in a male industrial worker population in India. METHODS: A total of 984 subjects from a randomly selected sample of 1013 workers from four industries in Goa, India, were recruited. Interviews included the 10-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) as an indicator of hazardous drinking and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) as a measure of common mental disorders (CMDs). RESULTS: The prevalence of hazardous drinking, defined as an AUDIT score of more than 8 was 21%. There was a significant association with CMD (OR 2, P = 0.003). Hazardous drinking was significantly associated with severe health problems, such as head injuries and hospitalization, whereas CMD was found to be a confounder in its association with adverse economic outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Hazardous drinking is common among male industrial workers in Goa. Interventions in the workplace must target both drinking problems and CMDs, since they often co-exist and are associated with different types of adverse outcomes.  (+info)

(44/870) Impact of comorbid personality disorder on violence in psychosis: report from the UK700 trial.

BACKGROUND: The impact of comorbid personality disorder on the occurrence of violence in psychosis has not been fully explored. AIMS: To examine the association between comorbid personality disorder and violence in community-dwelling patients with psychosis. METHOD: A total of 670 patients with established psychotic illness were screened for comorbid personality disorder. Physical assault was measured from multiple data sources over the subsequent 2 years. Logistic regression was used to assess whether the presence of comorbid personality disorder predicted violence in the sample. RESULTS: A total of 186 patients (28%) were rated as having a comorbid personality disorder. Patients with comorbid personality disorder were significantly more likely to behave violently over the 2-year period of the trial (adjusted odds ratio=1.71, 95% CI 1.05-2.79). CONCLUSIONS: Comorbid personality disorder is independently associated with an increased risk of violent behaviour in psychosis.  (+info)

(45/870) Linkage analysis of extremely discordant and concordant sibling pairs identifies quantitative-trait loci that influence variation in the human personality trait neuroticism.

Several theoretical studies have suggested that large samples of randomly ascertained siblings can be used to ascertain phenotypically extreme individuals and thereby increase power to detect genetic linkage in complex traits. Here, we report a genetic linkage scan using extremely discordant and concordant sibling pairs, selected from 34,580 sibling pairs in the southwest of England who completed a personality questionnaire. We performed a genomewide scan for quantitative-trait loci (QTLs) that influence variation in the personality trait of neuroticism, or emotional stability, and we established genomewide empirical significance thresholds by simulation. The maximum pointwise P values, expressed as the negative logarithm (base 10), were found on 1q (3.95), 4q (3.84), 7p (3.90), 12q (4.74), and 13q (3.81). These five loci met or exceeded the 5% genomewide significance threshold of 3.8 (negative logarithm of the P value). QTLs on chromosomes 1, 12, and 13 are likely to be female specific. One locus, on chromosome 1, is syntenic with that reported from QTL mapping of rodent emotionality, an animal model of neuroticism, suggesting that some animal and human QTLs influencing emotional stability may be homologous.  (+info)

(46/870) Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS): preliminary validation of a brief screen for personality disorder.

BACKGROUND: There is a need for a brief and simple screen for personality disorders that can be used in routine psychiatric assessments. AIMS: To test the concurrent validity and test-retest reliability of a brief screen for personality disorder. METHOD: Sixty psychiatric patients were administered a brief screening interview for personality disorder. On the same day, they were interviewed with an established assessment for DSM-IV personality disorder. Three weeks later, the brief screening interview was repeated in order to examine test-retest reliability. RESULTS: A score of 3 on the screening interview correctly identified the presence of DSM-IV personality disorder in 90% of participants. The sensitivity and specificity were were 0.94 and and 0.85 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides preliminary evidence of the usefulness of the screen in routine clinical settings.  (+info)

(47/870) The personality structure of 'normal' volunteers.

The personality structure of 65 volunteers for a Phase 1 drug trial was examined using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. It revealed a common pattern of high extroversion, low neuroticism and psychoticism. The reasons why the study might attract such people are examined and the structure compared with those that take drugs that might have 'strange or dangerous effects'. The likely forms of bias that this personality structure may bring to the trial are explored.  (+info)

(48/870) A system for evaluating and treating chronic back disability.

Five methods of personality assessment are evaluated to provide guidance for the psychological treatment of patients with chronic back pain. Patient pain drawings, pentothal pain studies, stress score index, psychological testing with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and response to treatment challenge are used as measurements for evaluation. This evaluation gives the treating staff guidelines for individual treatment programs utilizing operant conditioning techniques. Using this approach, three fourths of the severely disabled patients seen have been successfully treated.  (+info)