Attrition from smoking cessation treatment by individuals with a history of major depression was investigated. An investigation of preinclusion attrition examined differences between eligible smokers who did (n = 258) and did not (n = 100) attend an initial assessment session. Postinclusion attrition was investigated by comparing early dropouts (n = 33), late dropouts (n = 27), and treatment completers (n = 117). Those who failed to attend the assessment session were more likely to be female, to smoke cigarettes with higher nicotine content, and to have a history of psychotropic medication use. Early-treatment dropouts reported a higher smoking rate than late-treatment dropouts and endorsed more symptoms of depression than late dropouts and treatment completers. Results are compared with previous investigations of smoking cessation attrition, and implications for treatment and attrition prevention are discussed. (+info)
(26/869) Treatment of gonorrhea in the male with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole using a one- or two-dose regimen.
One hundred and eighty-four male patients with uncomplicated gonorrhea were treated in a randomized double-blind trial using two drug regimens. The combinations used were co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim, 80 mg and sulfamethoxazole, 400 mg) and TMP-SDZ (sulfadiazine, 400 mg and trimethoprim, 80 mg). In 43 patients who received eight tablets of co-trimoxazole in a single dose the cure rate was 88%. In the 46 patients who received a second dose of eight tablets 24 hours later the cure rate was 100%. When TMP-SDZ was used according to the same schedule the respective cure rates were 85% (41 patients) and 86% (35 patients). It is suggested that the two-dose regimen with co-trimoxazole is very effective in the treatment of uncomplicated urethral gonorrhea in the male and that the single-dose regimen, although less effective, may well prove adequate in patients defaulting after the initial treatment. At the present time, and with our local conditions, this form of treatment should be reserved for patients sensitive to penicillin or whose infections are resistant to this agent. The attack rate for patients having an episode of gonorrhea in the 12-month period immediately preceding the trial bore a direct relation to the outcome of therapy. It was highest (26%) in the group with an unsatisfactory outcome and lowest(4.3%) in the group with the highest cure rate. No adverse toxic reactions to the drug were recorded. (+info)
(27/869) Treatment of poor-prognosis early rheumatoid arthritis. A randomized study of treatment with methotrexate, cyclosporin A, and intraarticular corticosteroids compared with sulfasalazine alone.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a regimen of methotrexate, cyclosporin A, and corticosteroids introduced at onset in poor-prognosis rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can produce a significant improvement in outcome compared with standard monotherapy with sulfasalazine (SSZ). METHODS: Eighty-two consecutive patients presenting with new, untreated RA of less than 12 months' duration who fulfilled criteria for poor long-term outcome were randomized to receive either combination therapy (n = 40) or SSZ alone (n = 42). The primary outcome measures were remission and American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for 20% improvement at 48 weeks. RESULTS: After 48 weeks, the numbers of patients who met the ACR criteria for 20% improvement were not significantly different between the two groups (combination 58% versus SSZ 45%), and similar numbers of patients had persisting clinical remission (approximately 10% both groups). During the first 3 months, there were significantly greater reductions in parameters of disease activity in the combination group. By 24 weeks, the swollen and tender joint counts, C-reactive protein levels, and erythrocyte sedimentation rates had fallen significantly in both groups, with a greater improvement in the swollen and tender joint count in the combination group. At 48 weeks, the radiographic damage score had increased by a median of 1 (range 0-42.5) in the combination group and 1.25 (range 0-72.5) in the SSZ group (P = 0.28; although there were significant differences in the scores for the right hand). There were significantly fewer withdrawals due to lack of efficacy in the combination group than in the SSZ group (1 of 40 versus 10 of 42; P = 0.007). In the combination group, dose reduction was needed in 22.5% because of hypertension and in 22.5% because of elevated creatinine levels. Over 48 weeks, serum creatinine increased in both groups, but particularly in the combination arm. CONCLUSION: In poor-prognosis RA patients, "aggressive" combination therapy led to more rapid disease suppression but did not result in significantly better ACR response or remission rates. This suggests that in poor-prognosis disease, an approach based on identifying patients with poor treatment responses before extra therapy is added ("step-up" approach) may be more appropriate than the use of combination therapy in all patients from the outset. (+info)
(28/869) Defaulting from tuberculosis treatment in The Netherlands: rates, risk factors and trend in the period 1993-1997.
The aim of this study was to assess the rate of defaulting from treatment among tuberculosis patients diagnosed in the Netherlands in the period 1993-1997, whether risk groups for defaulting can be identified at the start of treatment and the trend of defaulting over time. The Netherlands Tuberculosis Register provided data on all patients diagnosed in the Netherlands during the period 1993-1997. Defaulting probabilities were determined using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and risk factors were identified with Cox's proportional hazard analysis. Of 7,529 patients with reported treatment outcome, 718 (10%) defaulted or left the country within 1 yr after starting treatment. Defaulting probabilities were 9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 8-10%) among 5,256 patients in low-risk groups, 17% (95% CI 14-19%) among 1,437 asylum seekers and 29% (95% CI 24-34%) among 836 patients in other high-risk groups (other recent immigrants, illegal immigrants, the homeless, prisoners and nationals from Eastern Europe). Defaulting probabilities decreased over time from 12% in 1993 to 7% in 1997. Risk groups for defaulting can be recognized at the start of treatment. The decreasing defaulting probabilities were probably due in part to shortening treatment from 9 to 6 months and improved follow-up of asylum seekers. However, additional measures are needed to reduce defaulting among the homeless, recent immigrants, illegal immigrants and prisoners. (+info)
(29/869) Results of rhabdomyosarcoma treatment in a developing country.
Fifty-one children (median age: 4.5 years; 4 months-16 years) diagnosed with rhabdomyosarcoma were treated in our center between 1980-1999. The primary sites were head and neck in 31.4%, the genito-urinary system in 21.6%, and extremities in 9.8% of the patients. The histopathologic subtypes were embryonal in 80.4%, alveolar in 9.8%, and undifferentiated in 9.8%. The majority of the patients were considered group III (47%) and group IV (25.5%) according the criteria of the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS). Primary total tumour resection was performed in only 27.5% of the patients. The patients were treated with assigned regimens of IRS II and IRS III protocols. Radiotherapy was applied to 92.1% of the patients. Thirty-four patients (66.7%) were lost to follow up, and of the remaining 17 patients, 7 patients (41.2%) died, relapse occurred in 9 patients (52.9%) and 10 patients (58.8%) are alive. The percentage of cases lost to follow up during the first 10 years and the following 9 years of the study were 77.4% and 50%, respectively. In compliance with cancer treatment remains a major problem in developing countries. (+info)
(30/869) Workload generated by a living donor programme for renal transplantation.
BACKGROUND: The ethical and medical implications of live kidney donation result in a comprehensive work-up process. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude of the workload and the yield of renal transplants generated by a live donor programme. METHODS: Referrals to the Leicester live donor programme over the five-year period 1994-1998 were retrospectively assessed. These were initiated by nephrology referral and subsequently investigated in a stepwise manner. Patients were counselled and baseline tests performed prior to consultant surgeon review and assessment of donor renal function/anatomy. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty referrals consisting of 150 recipients with 269 potential donors were originally made. This resulted in 32/120 (27%) related and 3/30 (10%) unrelated recipients (P=0.06) and 32/220 (15%) related and 3/49 (6%) unrelated donors proceeding to live donor transplantation, with a mean work-up time (+/-SD) of 9 (+/-7) months. One hundred and fifteen recipients (77%) and 234 (87%) donors failed to proceed at various stages of assessment, for a variety of immunological, medical and social reasons. A large number of expensive immunological investigations were required for potential donors, the majority of which did not proceed to transplantation. However as a result of performing these in the early stages of assessment the number of more invasive tests is kept to a minimum. CONCLUSIONS: There is a relatively low yield of transplants from live donor referrals, particularly those between unrelated individuals. The vast majority of referrals fail to proceed for legitimate reasons, but as a result, create a significant workload with notable staffing and financial implications. (+info)
(31/869) Predictors of inactivation and reasons for participant inactivation during a skin cancer chemoprevention study.
Maintaining good compliance is a major challenge in long-term cancer chemoprevention trials. Minimizing the number of inactive participants during a trial is an important factor in maximizing compliance. Identifying reasons for and predictors of inactivation is the first step in being able to reduce participant inactivation. In this skin cancer chemoprevention trial, the 2,297 participants were randomized to receive 25,000 IU of retinol daily or a placebo. Median follow-up time was 3.8 years. The reason for inactivation was determined for each participant who stopped taking the study capsules. Six hundred and seventy-seven (29.7%) participants became inactive during the 5-year study. There was no significant difference between the number of participants inactivating by treatment group or sex. The most common reasons for inactivation were illness of subject, spouse, or a close relative (18.6%) and experience of a clinical symptom consistent with vitamin A ingestion (17.1%). Participants in the vitamin A group (10.1%) more frequently cited symptoms coded as "not consistent with vitamin A" as the reason for inactivation compared with those in the placebo group [5.4% (P < 0.05)]. The inactivation rate was highest in the first month of the trial and declined thereafter. A low education level (hazard ratio, 1.59) and unmarried status (hazard ratio, 1.29) were the only significant predictors of inactivation. These findings may be useful in developing targeted strategies to decrease inactivation and thereby increase compliance in future chemoprevention trials. However, these findings need to be confirmed because published research in this area is very limited. (+info)
(32/869) The London Depression Intervention Trial. Randomised controlled trial of antidepressants v. couple therapy in the treatment and maintenance of people with depression living with a partner: clinical outcome and costs.
BACKGROUND: Relapse of depression is associated with a criticising attitude of the patient's partner. AIMS: To compare the relative efficacy and cost of couple therapy and antidepressant drugs for the treatment and maintenance of people with depression living with a critical partner. METHOD: A randomised controlled trial of antidepressant drugs v. couple therapy. The subjects were 77 people meeting criteria for depression living with a critical partner. RESULTS: Drop-outs were 56.8% [corrected] from drug treatment and 15% from couple therapy. Subjects' depression improved in both groups, but couple therapy showed a significant advantage, according to the Beck Depression Inventory, both at the end of treatment and after a second year off treatment. Adding the costs of the interventions to the costs of services used showed there was no appreciable difference between the two treatments. CONCLUSIONS: For this group couple therapy is much more acceptable than antidepressant drugs and is at least as efficacious, if not more so, both in the treatment and maintenance phases. It is no more expensive overall. (+info)