(1/451) Interleukin-10 and antigen-presenting cells actively suppress Th1 cells in BALB/c mice infected with the filarial parasite Brugia pahangi.
Infection with the third-stage larvae (L3) of the filarial nematode Brugia results in a Th2-biased immune response in mice and humans. Previously we have shown that the production of interleukin 4 (IL-4) is critical for down-regulating polyclonal Th1 responses in L3-infected mice. However, the in vitro neutralization of IL-4 did not fully recover the defective polyclonal Th1 responses, nor did it result in the production of any antigen (Ag)-specific Th1 cytokines, suggesting that perhaps infection with L3 does not result in priming of Th1 cells in vivo. In this study, we analyzed the role of IL-10 and Ag-presenting cells (APCs) in the spleen as additional factors controlling the Th2 bias in infected mice. Our data show that IL-10 and APCs also contribute to the suppression of mitogen-driven Th1 responses of spleen cells from infected mice. In addition, the neutralization of IL-10 or the replacement of the resident APC population from spleen cell cultures resulted in the production of Ag-specific Th1 cytokines. Irradiated spleen cells from either L3-infected or uninfected mice were able to restore Ag-specific Th1 responses in vitro. Therefore, it appears that Brugia-reactive Th1 cells are primed following infection with L3, but are actively suppressed in vivo by a mechanism that involves IL-10 and the resident APC population, but not IL-4. These results indicate that a complex interplay of cytokines and cell populations underscores the Th2-polarized response in L3-infected mice. (+info)
(2/451) Inhibition of Ets-1 DNA binding and ternary complex formation between Ets-1, NF-kappaB, and DNA by a designed DNA-binding ligand.
Sequence-specific pyrrole-imidazole polyamides can be designed to interfere with transcription factor binding and to regulate gene expression, both in vitro and in living cells. Polyamides bound adjacent to the recognition sites for TBP, Ets-1, and LEF-1 in the human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1), long terminal repeat inhibited transcription in cell-free assays and viral replication in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The DNA binding activity of the transcription factor Ets-1 is specifically inhibited by a polyamide bound in the minor groove. Ets-1 is a member of the winged-helix-turn-helix family of transcription factors and binds DNA through a recognition helix bound in the major groove with additional phosphate contacts on either side of this major groove interaction. The inhibitory polyamide possibly interferes with phosphate contacts made by Ets-1, by occupying the adjacent minor groove. Full-length Ets-1 binds the HIV-1 enhancer through cooperative interactions with the p50 subunit of NF-kappaB, and the Ets-inhibitory polyamide also blocks formation of ternary Ets-1. NF-kappaB.DNA complexes on the HIV-1 enhancer. A polyamide bound adjacent to the recognition site for NF-kappaB also inhibits NF-kappaB binding and ternary complex formation. These results broaden the application range of minor groove-binding polyamides and demonstrate that these DNA ligands are powerful inhibitors of DNA-binding proteins that predominantly use major groove contacts and of cooperative protein-DNA ternary complexes. (+info)
(3/451) Sensitivity issues in DNA array-based expression measurements and performance of nylon microarrays for small samples.
DNA or oligonucleotide arrays are widely used for large-scale expression measurements, using various implementations: macroarrays in which DNA is spotted onto nylon membranes of relatively large dimensions (with radioactive detection) on the one hand; microarrays on glass slides and oligonucleotide chips, both used with fluorescent probes, on the other hand. Nylon micro-arrays with colourimetric detection have also been described recently. The small physical dimensions of miniaturized systems allow small hybridization volumes (2-100 microl) and provide high probe concentrations, in contrast to macroarrays. We show, however, that actual sensitivity (defined as the amount of sample necessary for detection of a given mRNA species) is in fact similar for all these systems and that this is mostly due to the very different amounts of target material present on the respective arrays. We then demonstrate that the combination of nylon microarrays with(33)P-labelled radioactive probes provides 100-fold better sensitivity, making it possible to perform expression profiling experiments using submicrogram amounts of unamplified total RNA from small biological samples. This has important implications in basic and clinical research and makes this alternative approach particularly suitable for groups operating in an academic context. (+info)
(4/451) Functional and morphologic characteristics of the leukemic cells of a patient with acute monocytic leukemia: correlation with clinical features.
The clinical course of a patient with acute monocytic leukemia and prominent infiltration of the skin and testes is described. In vitro studies demonstrated that the circulating monocyte precursors were capable of adherence to nylon fibers, and phagocytosis of bacteria and latex particles. In vivo, migration of leukemic cells to skin windows was observed. Extreme nuclear folding, marked surface activity, and morphologic features suggesting nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation were seen by light and electron microscopy. The presence of morphologically and functionally more differentiated monocytic cells may account for the marked tiuuse invasion in this patient and, possibly, in other patients with monocytic leukemia. (+info)
(5/451) In vitro cytotoxicity of textile paint components linked to the "Ardystil syndrome".
The spraying of a paint formula (Acramin F system) had led to severe pulmonary disease in textile printing sprayers in Spain and Algeria (Ardystil syndrome). In order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the toxicity of this paint and its main polymeric components, Acramin FWR, Acramin FWN, Acrafix FHN, and Acramoll W, we have undertaken studies using a battery of different cell-types and assessing in vitro cytotoxicity by measuring LDH leakage. This study shows that, as in in vivo studies, the three polycationic paint components, Acramin FWR (a polyurea), Acramin FWN (a polyamide-amine), and Acrafix FHN (a polyamine) exhibited considerable cytotoxicity (LC50 generally below 100 microg/ml for an incubation of 20-24 h) in vitro, while Acramoll W, which is not a polycation, was almost non-toxic (in the concentration range tested). The cytotoxicity was comparable in primary cultures of rat and human type II pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages as well as in the pulmonary cell line A549 and the hepatic cell line HepG2. In human erythrocytes, the toxicity was less pronounced. We speculate that the multiple positive charges play an important role in the toxic mechanism. It is concluded that Acramin FWR and Acramin FWN have similar intrinsic toxicity and that these polymeric compounds, which have no irritant properties or systemic toxicity when given orally, exert a high, unexpected, degree of cytotoxicity. (+info)
(6/451) Local anaesthetic effect of topical amethocaine gel in neonates: randomised controlled trial.
AIM: To assess the efficacy of amethocaine as a topical local anaesthetic in neonates. METHODS: A randomised, double blind controlled trial compared 4% amethocaine gel (Ametop) with placebo in 60 healthy neonates (29 to 42 weeks of gestation) in the first week after birth. Either 1.5 g 4% w/w amethocaine (gel) or 1.5 g placebo gel were applied to the dorsum of one foot. No gel was applied to the other foot. Each foot was occluded and left for one hour. Local anaesthesia was then assessed by eliciting the cutaneous withdrawal reflex in response to stimulation with a series of graded nylon filaments (von Frey hairs). The reflex was first elicited from the control and then the treated foot. The difference in filament thickness and deforming weight required to elicit the reflex was recorded. RESULTS: In infants treated with amethocaine, 17 of 31 (54. 8%) showed evidence of local anaesthetic action compared with five of 29 (17.2%) in the placebo group (p=0.003). The mean difference in deforming weight required to elicit the reflex was 18.8 g in the amethocaine group compared with 3.9 g in the placebo group (p=0.02). The apparent local anaesthetic action of the placebo can be explained by habituation to repeated stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that topical amethocaine gel has a local anaesthetic action on neonatal skin which merits further investigation. An effective and safe surface local anaesthetic would be valuable for the relief of procedure related pain in neonates. (+info)
(7/451) In-source decay of hyperbranched polyesteramides in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
Hyperbranched polyesteramides (DA2), prepared from hexahydrophthalic anhydride (D) and diisopropanolamine (A) have been characterized, by use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), field desorption (FD)-MS, and electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS. MALDI of polyesteramides produces protonated molecules. The spectra show a complex chemical composition distribution and end-group distribution which are mainly composed of two series of homologous oligomers DnA(n)+1 - mH2O and DnA(n) - mH2O, where m = 1-2. Signals from protonated molecules DnAn+1 and DnAn are almost absent in the MALDI spectrum, whereas these ions are responsible for the base peak of DnA(n)+1 - mH2O and DnA(n) - mH2O (m = 1-2) clusters in the ESI spectrum. The absence of -OH end-groups signals in the MALDI spectrum is due to a metastable decay of protonated DnA(n)+1 and DnAn ions in the ion source of the MALDI mass spectrometer prior to ion extraction. In-source decay results in the formation of protonated lower DnA(n)+1 - mH2O and DnA(n) - mH2O oligomers and their corresponding neutrals, leading to wrong conclusions concerning the relative end-group distribution as a function of the degree of polymerization and the chemical composition. (+info)
(8/451) Sequence specific alkylation of DNA by hairpin pyrrole-imidazole polyamide conjugates.
BACKGROUND: Pyrrole-imidazole polyamides are synthetic ligands that recognize predetermined sequences in the minor groove of DNA with affinities and specificities comparable to those of DNA-binding proteins. As a result of their DNA-binding properties, polyamides could deliver reactive moieties for covalent reaction at specific DNA sequences and thereby inhibit DNA-protein interactions. Site-specific alkylation of DNA could be a useful tool for regulating gene expression. As a minimal first step, we set out to design and synthesize a class of hairpin polyamides equipped with DNA alkylating agents and characterize the specificity and yield of covalent modification. RESULTS: Bis(dichloroethylamino)benzene derivatives of the well-characterized chlorambucil (CHL) were attached to the gamma turn of an eight-ring hairpin polyamide targeted to the HIV-1 promoter. We found that a hairpin polyamide-CHL conjugate binds and selectively alkylates predetermined sites in the HIV promoter at subnanomolar concentrations. Cleavage sites were determined on both strands of a restriction fragment containing the HIV-1 promoter, revealing good specificity and a high yield of alkylation. CONCLUSIONS: The ability of polyamide-CHL conjugates to sequence specifically alkylate double-stranded DNA in high yield and at low concentrations sets the stage for testing their use as regulators of gene expression in cell culture and ultimately in complex organisms. (+info)