(1/1308) Evidence for F-actin-dependent and -independent mechanisms involved in assembly and stability of the medial actomyosin ring in fission yeast.
Cell division in a number of eukaryotes, including the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, is achieved through a medially placed actomyosin-based contractile ring. Although several components of the actomyosin ring have been identified, the mechanisms regulating ring assembly are still not understood. Here, we show by biochemical and mutational studies that the S.pombe actomyosin ring component Cdc4p is a light chain associated with Myo2p, a myosin II heavy chain. Localization of Myo2p to the medial ring depended on Cdc4p function, whereas localization of Cdc4p at the division site was independent of Myo2p. Interestingly, the actin-binding and motor domains of Myo2p are not required for its accumulation at the division site although the motor activity of Myo2p is essential for assembly of a normal actomyosin ring. The initial assembly of Myo2p and Cdc4p at the division site requires a functional F-actin cytoskeleton. Once established, however, F-actin is not required for the maintenance of Cdc4p and Myo2p medial rings, suggesting that the attachment of Cdc4p and Myo2p to the division site involves proteins other than actin itself. (+info)
(2/1308) Dephosphorylation of the catenins p120 and p100 in endothelial cells in response to inflammatory stimuli.
Inflammatory mediators such as histamine and thrombin increase the tight-junction permeability of endothelial cells. Tight-junction permeability may be independently controlled, but is dependent on the adherens junction, where adhesion is achieved through homotypic interaction of cadherins, which in turn are associated with cytoplasmic proteins, the catenins. p120, also termed p120(cas)/p120(ctn), and its splice variant, p100, are catenins. p120, originally discovered as a substrate of the tyrosine kinase Src, is also a target for a protein kinase C-stimulated pathway in epithelial cells, causing its serine/threonine dephosphorylation. The present study shows that pharmacological activation of protein kinase C stimulated a similar pathway in endothelial cells. Activation of receptors for agents such as histamine (H1), thrombin and lysophosphatidic acid in the endothelial cells also caused serine/threonine dephosphorylation of p120 and p100, suggesting physiological relevance. However, protein kinase C inhibitors, although blocking the effect of pharmacological activation of protein kinase C, did not block the effects due to receptor activation. Calcium mobilization and the myosin-light-chain-kinase pathway do not participate in p120/p100 signalling. In conclusion, endothelial cells possess protein kinase C-dependent and -independent pathways regulating p120/p100 serine/threonine phosphorylation. These data describe a new connection between inflammatory agents, receptor-stimulated signalling and pathways potentially influencing intercellular adhesion in endothelial cells. (+info)
(3/1308) Activation of G12/G13 results in shape change and Rho/Rho-kinase-mediated myosin light chain phosphorylation in mouse platelets.
Platelets respond to various stimuli with rapid changes in shape followed by aggregation and secretion of their granule contents. Platelets lacking the alpha-subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein Gq do not aggregate and degranulate but still undergo shape change after activation through thromboxane-A2 (TXA2) or thrombin receptors. In contrast to thrombin, the TXA2 mimetic U46619 led to the selective activation of G12 and G13 in Galphaq-deficient platelets indicating that these G proteins mediate TXA2 receptor-induced shape change. TXA2 receptor-mediated activation of G12/G13 resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of pp72(syk) and stimulation of pp60(c-src) as well as in phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) in Galphaq-deficient platelets. Both MLC phosphorylation and shape change induced through G12/G13 in the absence of Galphaq were inhibited by the C3 exoenzyme from Clostridium botulinum, by the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 and by cAMP-analogue Sp-5,6-DCl-cBIMPS. These data indicate that G12/G13 couple receptors to tyrosine kinases as well as to the Rho/Rho-kinase-mediated regulation of MLC phosphorylation. We provide evidence that G12/G13-mediated Rho/Rho-kinase-dependent regulation of MLC phosphorylation participates in receptor-induced platelet shape change. (+info)
(4/1308) Age-related changes in contractile properties of single skeletal fibers from the soleus muscle.
Peak absolute force, specific tension (peak absolute force per cross-sectional area), cross-sectional area, maximal unloaded shortening velocity (Vo; determined by the slack test), and myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform compositions were determined in 124 single skeletal fibers from the soleus muscle of 12-, 24-, 30-, 36-, and 37-mo-old Fischer 344 Brown Norway F1 Hybrid rats. All fibers expressed the type I MHC isoform. The mean Vo remained unchanged from 12 to 24 mo but did decrease significantly from the 24- to 30-mo time period (from 1.71 +/- 0.13 to 0.85 +/- 0.09 fiber lengths/s). Fiber cross-sectional area remained constant until 36 mo of age, at which time there was a 20% decrease from the values at 12 mo of age (from 5,558 +/- 232 to 4,339 +/- 280 micrometer2). A significant decrease in peak absolute force of single fibers occurred between 12 and 24 mo of age (from 51 +/- 2 x 10(-5) to 35 +/- 2 x 10(-5) N) and then remained constant until 36 mo, when another 43% decrease occurred. Like peak absolute force, the specific tension decreased significantly between 12 and 24 mo by 20%, and another 32% decline was observed at 37 mo. Thus, by 24 mo, there was a dissociation between the loss of fiber cross-sectional area and force. The results suggest time-specific changes of the contractile properties with aging that are independent of each other. Underlying mechanisms responsible for the time-dependent and contractile property-specific changes are unknown. Age-related changes in the molecular dynamics of myosin may be the underlying mechanism for altered force production. The presence of more than one beta/slow MHC isoform may be the mechanism for the altered Vo with age. (+info)
(5/1308) NH2-terminal fragments of the 130 kDa subunit of myosin phosphatase increase the Ca2+ sensitivity of porcine renal artery.
1. The effects of the NH2-terminal fragments of M130, a 130 kDa regulatory subunit of smooth muscle myosin phosphatase, on contraction and myosin light chain phosphorylation were investigated in Triton X-100-permeabilized porcine renal artery. 2. Incubation of the permeabilized fibres with M1301-633 (a fragment containing amino acid residues 1-633) or M13044-633 enhanced the Ca2+-induced contraction and shifted the [Ca2+]i-force relationship to the left (EC50 of Ca2+: 330 nM, control, without fragment; 145 nM, M1301-633; 163 nM, M13044-633). Pre-incubation for 1-3 h was needed for these long constructs. 3. M1301-374, M130304-511 and M130297-374, i.e. relatively short constructs compared with M1301-633 and M13044-633, also induced leftward shifts of the [Ca2+]i-force relationship (EC50 of Ca2+: 65 nM, 72 nM and 180 nM, respectively). However, these required no pre-incubation. 4. Deletion of residues 304-374 from the most potent construct, M1301-374, abolished the Ca2+-sensitizing effect. 5. Wortmannin inhibited the enhancement of contraction induced by M130 fragments when added before contraction was initiated and partially inhibited the effects when added after steady-state contraction. 6. M1301-374 slowed the rate of relaxation in Ca2+-free medium. The time for 50 % relaxation with this fragment was 510 +/- 51 s, compared with 274 +/- 14 s for control. 7. The levels of myosin light chain phosphorylation (22.4 %) and force (34. 5 %) obtained with 300 nM Ca2+ were increased by 3 microM M1301-374 to 35.7 and 92.2 %, respectively. However, M1301-374 had no effect on the phosphorylation-force relationship. 8. In conclusion, the NH2-terminal M130 fragments containing residues 304-374 inhibited myosin phosphatase, increased myosin light chain phosphorylation and increased the Ca2+ sensitivity of the contractile apparatus in permeabilized porcine renal artery. (+info)
(6/1308) Rho-kinase in human neutrophils: a role in signalling for myosin light chain phosphorylation and cell migration.
The role of a Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase in migration of neutrophils has been investigated. Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase I was expressed in human neutrophils. Chemotactic peptide led to a Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase-dependent increase in phosphorylation of myosin light chain. This was determined with the help of an antibody directed against serine 19-phosphorylated myosin light chain and an inhibitor of Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase (Y-27632). Y-27632 suppressed myosin light chain phosphorylation and chemotactic peptide-induced development of cell polarity and locomotion with similar potency (ED50 0.5-1.1 microM). The data strongly suggest that a Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase isoform, activated in human neutrophils exposed to chemotactic peptide, is important for motile functions of these cells. (+info)
(7/1308) Ca2+ sensitization of smooth muscle contractility induced by ruthenium red.
The effects of ruthenium red (RuR) on contractility were examined in skinned fibers of guinea pig smooth muscles, where sarcoplasmic reticulum function was destroyed by treatment with A-23187. Contractions of skinned fibers of the urinary bladder were enhanced by RuR in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 = 60 microM at pCa 6.0). The magnitude of contraction at pCa 6.0 was increased to 320% of control by 100 microM RuR. Qualitatively, the same results were obtained in skinned fibers prepared from the ileal longitudinal smooth muscle layer and mesenteric artery. The maximal contraction induced by pCa 4.5 was not affected significantly by RuR. The enhanced contraction by RuR was not reversed by the addition of guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) or a peptide inhibitor of protein kinase C [PKC-(19-31)]. The application of microcystin, a potent protein phosphatase inhibitor, induced a tonic contraction of skinned smooth muscle at low Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]; pCa > 8.0). RuR had a dual effect on the microcystin-induced contraction-to- enhancement ratio at low concentrations and suppression at high concentrations. The relaxation following the decrease in [Ca2+] from pCa 5.0 to >8.0 was significantly slowed down by an addition of RuR. Phosphorylation of the myosin light chain at pCa 6.3 was significantly increased by RuR in skinned fibers of the guinea pig ileum. These results indicate that RuR markedly increases the Ca2+ sensitivity of the contractile system, at least in part via inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase. (+info)
(8/1308) Fiber type populations and Ca2+-activation properties of single fibers in soleus muscles from SHR and WKY rats.
Electrophoretic analyses of muscle proteins in whole muscle homogenates and single muscle fiber segments were used to examine myosin heavy chain (MHC) and myosin light chain 2 (MLC2) isoform composition and fiber type populations in soleus muscles from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and their age-matched normotensive controls [Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats], at three stages in the development of high blood pressure (4 wk, 16 wk, and 24 wk of age). Demembranated (chemically skinned with 2% Triton X-100), single fiber preparations were used to determine the maximum Ca2+-activated force per cross-sectional area, calcium sensitivity, and degree of cooperativity of the contractile apparatus and Ca2+-regulatory system with respect to Ca2+. The results show that, at all ages examined, 1) SHR soleus contained a lower proportion of MHCI and MLC2 slow (MLC2s) and a higher proportion of MHCIIa, MHCIId/x, and MLC2 fast (MLC2f ) isoforms than the age-matched controls; 2) random dissection of single fibers from SHR and WKY soleus produced four populations of fibers: type I (expressing MHCI), type IIA (expressing MHCIIa), hybrid type I+IIA (coexpressing MHCI and MHCIIa), and hybrid type IIA+IID (coexpressing MHCIIa and MHCIId/x); and 3) single fiber dissection from SHR soleus yielded a lower proportion of type I fibers, a higher proportion of fast-twitch fibers (types IIA and IIA+IID), and a higher proportion of hybrid fibers (types I+IIA and IIA+IID) than the homologous muscles from the age-matched WKY rats. Because the presence of hybrid fibers is viewed as a marker of muscle transformation, these data suggest that SHR soleus undergoes transformation well into adulthood. Our data show also that, for a given fiber type, there are no significant differences between SHR and WKY soleus muscles with respect to any of the Ca2+-activation properties examined. This finding indicates that the lower specific tensions reported in the literature for SHR soleus muscles are not due to strain- or hypertension-related differences in the function of the contractile apparatus or regulatory system. (+info)