(65/413) Antibodies to Bartonella vinsonii subsp. Berkhoffii in Moroccan dogs.
Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii is a fastidious microorganism that has been recognized as an emerging human and canine pathogen. We report for the first time on the prevalence of antibodies to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in domestic dogs from Morocco. The overall seroprevalence was 38% (56 of 147 dogs tested). Most of the seropositive dogs were stray dogs from Rabat (36%, 8 of 22) and Khenifra (47%, 47 of 101). Antibodies against B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii were found infrequently among pet dogs from Rabat (4%, 1 of 24). (+info)
(66/413) Differences in avoidable mortality between migrants and the native Dutch in The Netherlands.
BACKGROUND: The quality of the healthcare system and its role in influencing mortality of migrant groups can be explored by examining ethnic variations in 'avoidable' mortality. This study investigates the association between the level of mortality from 'avoidable' causes and ethnic origin in the Netherlands and identifies social factors that contribute to this association. METHODS: Data were obtained from cause of death and population registries in the period 1995-2000. We compared mortality rates for selected 'avoidable' conditions for Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese and Antillean/Aruban groups to native Dutch. RESULTS: We found slightly elevated risk in total 'avoidable' mortality for migrant populations (RR = 1.13). Higher risks of death among migrants were observed from almost all infectious diseases (most RR > 3.00) and several chronic conditions including asthma, diabetes and cerebro-vascular disorders (most RR > 1.70). Migrant women experienced a higher risk of death from maternity-related conditions (RR = 3.37). Surinamese and Antillean/Aruban population had a higher mortality risk (RR = 1.65 and 1.31 respectively), while Turkish and Moroccans experienced a lower risk of death (RR = 0.93 and 0.77 respectively) from all 'avoidable' conditions compared to native Dutch. Control for demographic and socioeconomic factors explained a substantial part of ethnic differences in 'avoidable' mortality. CONCLUSION: Compared to the native Dutch population, total 'avoidable' mortality was slightly elevated for all migrants combined. Mortality risks varied greatly by cause of death and ethnic origin. The substantial differences in mortality for a few 'avoidable' conditions suggest opportunities for quality improvement within specific areas of the healthcare system targeted to disadvantaged groups. (+info)
(67/413) Disentangling reasons for low Y chromosome variation in the greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula).
Y chromosome variation is determined by several confounding factors including mutation rate, effective population size, demography, and selection. Disentangling these factors is essential to better understand the evolutionary properties of the Y chromosome. We analyzed genetic variation on the Y chromosome, X chromosome, and mtDNA of the greater white-toothed shrew, a species with low variance in male reproductive success and limited sex-biased dispersal, which enables us to control to some extent for life-history effects. We also compared ancestral (Moroccan) to derived (European) populations to investigate the role of demographic history in determining Y variation. Recent colonization of Europe by a small number of founders (combined with low mutation rates) is largely responsible for low diversity observed on the European Y and X chromosomes compared to mtDNA. After accounting for mutation rate, copy number, and demography, the Y chromosome still displays a deficit in variation relative to the X in both populations. This is possibly influenced by directional selection, but the slightly higher variance in male reproductive success is also likely to play a role, even though the difference is small compared to that in highly polygynous species. This study illustrates that demography and life-history effects should be scrutinized before inferring strong selective pressure as a reason for low diversity on the Y chromosome. (+info)
(68/413) Peritoneal tuberculosis in the Fes University Hospital (Morocco). Report of 123 cases.
AIMS: Peritoneal tuberculosis is an important public health issue in Morocco. Our aim was to describe the clinical, biological, and therapeutic features of peritoneal tuberculosis treated in a University Hospital in Morocco. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively included 123 patients with peritoneal tuberculosis diagnosed at the gastroenterology unit of the Fes University Hospital between January 2001 and August 2003. RESULTS: The mean age was 28 years with a clear female predominance (sex ratio 2.61). Ascites associated with fever were the most frequent signs found in 80.5% of patients. The ascitic fluid was exsudative in 90% of cases and lymphocytic in 88%. The diagnosis was based on laparoscopy or laparotomy with peritoneal biopsy demonstrating caseating granulomatous lesions in 92.4% of patients. Patients were given antituberculous therapy for 6 months, and the outcome was favourable in 90%. CONCLUSION: Peritoneal tuberculosis is very frequent in Morocco, where the diagnosis is based exclusively on peritoneal biopsies obtained during laparoscopy. With an adapted treatment, the course of the disease is favourable in most cases. (+info)
(69/413) Use of health care services by ethnic minorities in The Netherlands: do patterns differ?
BACKGROUND: This article examines the nature of ethnic differences in health care utilisation by assessing patterns of use in addition to single service utilisation. METHODS: Data were derived from the Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice. A nationally representative sample of 104 general practices participated in this survey. Data on health and health service utilisation were collected through face-to-face interviews. Based on a random sample per practice, a total of 12 699 Dutch-speaking people were interviewed, regardless of ethnic background. An additional study among a random sample of 1339 people from the four largest minority groups in The Netherlands was conducted. These four groups comprised people from Turkey, Surinam, Morocco, and The Netherlands Antilles. Multilevel analyses were performed to investigate ethnic differences in health care utilisation, adjusting for socio-economic status, health status, and level of urbanisation. RESULTS: Differences in utilisation patterns were particularly marked for people with a Moroccan, Turkish, or Antillean background. Compared to the other groups, Surinamese were more likely to have had contact with any professional health care service. No evidence was found that the gate keeping role of general practitioners in The Netherlands functions less effectively among the ethnic minority groups as compared to the indigenous population. CONCLUSION: The analysis of patterns of utilisation proved to supply useful information concerning the relationship between ethnicity and use of health care services in addition to figures concerning single service use only. (+info)
(70/413) The impact of clothing style on bone mineral density among post menopausal women in Morocco: a case-control study.
BACKGROUND: The clothing style is an important factor that influences vitamin D production and thus bone mineral density. We performed a case-control study in order to evaluate the effect of veil wearing (concealing clothing) on bone mineral density in Moroccan post menopausal women. METHODS: The cases were osteoporotic women whose disease was assessed by bone mineral density measurement. Each patient was matched with a non osteoporotic woman for age, and body mass index. All our patients were without secondary causes or medications that might affect bone density. The veil was defined as a concealing clothing which covered most of the body including the arms, the legs and the head. This definition is this of the usual Moroccan traditional clothing style. RESULTS: 178 post menopausal osteoporotic patients and 178 controls were studied. The mean age of the cases and the controls was 63.2 years (SD 7) and the mean body mass index was 32.1 (SD 8). The results of crude Odds Ratios analyses indicated that wearing a veil was associated with a high risk of osteoporosis: OR 2.29 (95% CI, 1.38-3.82). Multiparity or a history of familial peripheral osteoporotic fractures had also a significant effect on increasing the osteoporosis risk (ORs: 1.87 (95% CI, 1.05-3.49) and 2.01 (95% CI, 1.20-3.38)). After a multiple regression analysis, wearing the veil and a history of familial osteoporotic fractures remained the both independent factors that increased the osteoporosis risk (ORs: 2.20 (95% CI, 1.22-3.9) and 2.19 (95% CI, 1.12-4.29) respectively). CONCLUSION: our study suggested that in Moroccan post menopausal women, wearing a traditional concealing clothing covering arms, legs and head increased the risk of osteoporosis. Further studies are required to evaluate the clinical impact of the above findings and to clarify the status of vitamin D among veiled women in Morocco. (+info)
(71/413) Molecular epidemiology of the HHV-8 K1 gene from Moroccan patients with Kaposi's sarcoma.
The genetic variability of the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) strains circulating in the populations living in the Maghreb region, an endemic area for HHV-8 and associated Kaposi's sarcoma, remains largely unknown. We have thus analyzed the genetic variation of the complete K1 gene of HHV-8 in a series of 35 viral strains, originating from 28 Moroccan patients with classic, AIDS-associated or iatrogenic Kaposi's sarcoma lesions. All but one of the 35 strains belonged to the large C molecular subtype. Furthermore, high genetic diversity within the C subtype was observed in the 35 sequenced HHV-8 K1 genes, with strains belonging to several and distinct subgroups highly supported from a phylogenetically viewpoint (e.g., C3, C7, C'' and C5). Considering these newly identified Moroccan viral strains in the context of 189 complete K1 genes, we were able to characterized, using the Simplot program, two main groups of recombinant chimeric K1 genes, either intertypic (C5) or intratypic (C7). In addition, the genetic characterization of the host maternal gene pool, through the analyses of mtDNA variation, did not provide evidence for any association between a particular human ethno-geographic background (i.e., North African vs. sub-Saharan African vs. West Eurasian linages) and any HHV-8 strain because both C' and C'' strains were randomly distributed among the different patients' population backgrounds. (+info)
(72/413) Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in Portuguese native dog breeds: diversity and phylogenetic affinities.
In an extensive survey of the genetic diversity in Portuguese dogs, we have examined an 887-bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 8 Portuguese, 1 Spanish, and 2 North African native dog breeds, including village dogs from Portugal and Tunisia. Forty-nine haplotypes were found in the 164 individuals analyzed, with private haplotypes being found in several breeds. For example, the Castro Laboreiro Watchdog, a rare breed from a small and isolated region in Portugal, was monomorphic for mtDNA and possessed a new haplotype, which may be provisionally considered a breed-specific marker. Phylogenetic analyses recapitulated 4 major clades identified in other studies, but new haplotypes, grouping within a clade that was previously thought as geographically restricted, were detected in Portugal and Morocco. Portuguese village dogs showed no genetic differentiation from nonnative dogs or from local breeds of the areas in which the village dogs were sampled. Although Iberian and North African dog breeds possessed breed-specific mtDNA haplotypes, no significant geographic structure could be detected among them. There is no evidence for introgression of North African haplotypes in Iberian dogs, contrary to previous results for other domestic animals. (+info)