(57/413) The effect of data collection mode and ethnicity of interviewer on response rates and self-reported alcohol use among Turks and Moroccans in the Netherlands: an experimental study.
AIMS: To test the effects of data collection mode and ethnicity of interviewers on response rates and self-reported alcohol use among second-generation Turks and Moroccans in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. METHODS: Two hundred and sixty-nine Turks and 271 Moroccans were interviewed face-to-face, and 475 Turks and 482 Moroccans received a mailed questionnaire. Half of the Turks and Moroccans randomly allocated to the interview mode were ethnically matched to the interviewer; the remainder were allocated to a Dutch interviewer. RESULTS: Turks and Moroccans more often responded to a face-to-face interview than to a mailed questionnaire. No effect of ethnicity of interviewer on response rates was demonstrated. With respect to the effects on alcohol reports, Turks and Moroccans tended to report a higher alcohol use in the mailed survey than in the face-to-face interview. They reported significantly more often excessive drinking in the mail survey than in the face-to-face interviews. Ethnicity of the interviewer resulted in Turks and Moroccans reporting a higher prevalence of alcohol use during the previous 6 months when interviewed by a Dutch interviewer compared with an ethnically matched interviewer. CONCLUSIONS: Among second-generation Turks and Moroccans, mail surveys seem most suitable to measure mean and excessive alcohol use. However, interviews held by Dutch interviewers seem to be the most appropriate method to study the prevalence of alcohol use during the previous 6 months. (+info)
(58/413) Scale of therapeutic behavior of type 2 diabetic patients. Hierarchical analysis of a questionnaire.
OBJECTIVES: Patient's therapeutic behavior determines the quality of self care in diabetes. The sociological approach can contribute to a better understanding of the internal logic of patient's behavior. The objective of our work is to study patients representations of their illness and its treatment in Moroccan type 2 diabetic patients. Our study concerns 307 type 2 diabetic patients. METHOD: The collection of data has been achieved by means of a questionnaire by investigators with sociological training. The study consists of hierarchical analysis of a questionnaire on representations, attitudes and behavior of patients with the help of Loevinger's coefficient. RESULTS: Test of several groups of hierarchized-answer questions allows to identify a 5 questions scale (scale whose coefficient value is 0.47). Otherwise, different social, psychological and therapeutic variables influence the integration of patients in the scale of therapeutic behavior. CONCLUSION: It is possible to recognize a scale of therapeutic behavior in type 2 diabetes. The use of several other sociological qualitative or quantitative methods, by different authors and in different contexts enables to approach the logic of the therapeutic behavior. Its understanding can allows us to adapt the education, the treatment and the follow-up to every patient. (+info)
(59/413) Characterization of Borrelia lusitaniae isolates collected in Tunisia and Morocco.
Borrelia lusitaniae is a species within the complex Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and is infrequently isolated in Europe. In contrast, this species is by far the most predominant in North Africa and in Portugal. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity, at several loci, of a large population of isolates from free-living Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in Tunisia and Morocco. We found a moderate diversity of the whole genome by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis as well as in the ospA gene sequences, compared to a high level of strain homogeneity in the small noncoding ribosomal spacer. In contrast, a high diversity of this locus has been previously reported for Portuguese isolates. We hypothesize that B. lusitaniae strains isolated in North Africa constitute a clone of Portuguese origin. (+info)
(60/413) Phylogeography of Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) and the origin of the Gibraltar colony.
The Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) is the earliest offshoot of the genus Macaca and the only extant African representative, all other species being Asiatic. Once distributed throughout North Africa, M. sylvanus is now restricted to isolated forest fragments in Algeria and Morocco. The species is threatened; the maximum total wild population size is estimated at 10,000 individuals. Relationships among surviving wild subpopulations in Algeria (96 samples) and Morocco (116 samples) were examined by using 468-bp sequences from hypervariable region I of the mitochondrial DNA control region. Twenty-four different haplotypes were identified, differing by 1-26 mutational steps (0.2-5.6%) and 1 insertion. With one exception (attributable to secondary introduction in coastal Morocco), Algerian and Moroccan haplotypes are clearly distinct. However, whereas Moroccan subpopulations show little divergence in hypervariable region I sequences and little correspondence with geographical distribution, there is a deep division between two main subpopulations in Algeria and one marked secondary division, with haplotypes generally matching geographical distribution. Accepting an origin of the genus Macaca of 5.5 million years ago, the Moroccan population and the two main Algerian subpopulations diverged approximately 1.6 million years ago. Distinction between Moroccan and Algerian haplotypes permitted analysis of the origin of the Gibraltar colony of Barbary macaques (68 samples; 30% of the population). It is generally held that the present Gibraltar population descended from a dozen individuals imported during World War II. However, the Gibraltar sample was found to include Algerian and Moroccan haplotypes separated by at least 16 mutational steps, revealing a dual origin of the founding females. (+info)
(61/413) Travel-associated rabies in Austrian man.
Rabies developed in an Austrian man after he was bitten by a dog in Agadir, Morocco. Diagnosis was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. The patient's girlfriend was bitten by the same dog, but she did not become ill. (+info)
(62/413) Reliability of data on caesarean sections in developing countries.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the reliability of reported rates of caesarean sections from developing countries and make recommendations on how data collection for surveys and health facility-based studies could be improved. METHODS: Population-based rates for caesarean section obtained from two sources: Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and health facility-based records of caesarean sections from the Unmet Obstetric Need Network, together with estimates of the number of live births, were compared for six developing countries. Sensitivity analyses were conducted using several different definitions of the caesarean section rate, and the rates obtained from the two data sources were compared. FINDINGS: The DHS rates for caesarean section were consistently higher than the facility-based rates. However, in three quarters of the cases, the facility-based rates for caesarean sections fell within the 95% confidence intervals for the DHS estimate. CONCLUSION: The importance of the differences between these two series of rates depends on the analyst's perspective. For national and global monitoring, DHS data on caesarean sections would suffice, although the imprecision of the rates would make the monitoring of trends difficult. However, the imprecision of DHS data on caesarean sections precludes their use for the purposes of programme evaluation at the regional level. (+info)
(63/413) Autosomal recessive mutilating sensory neuropathy with spastic paraplegia maps to chromosome 5p15.31-14.1.
Autosomal recessive ulcero-mutilating neuropathy with spastic paraplegia is a very rare disease since only few cases were described up to date. We report in this study a consanguineous Moroccan family with four affected males with this syndrome. The disease onset was in early infancy, with spastic paraplegia and sensory loss leading to mutilating acropathy. Electrophysiological studies revealed a severe axonal sensory neuropathy, magnetic resonance imaging ruled out compression of spinal cord and biological investigations showed decreased levels of Apo B, total cholesterol and triglycerides. A genomewide search was conducted in this family and linkage was found to chromosome 5p. Analysis of recombination events and LOD score calculation map the responsible gene in a 25 cM genetic interval between markers D5S2054 and D5S648. A maximum LOD score value of 3.92 was obtained for all markers located in this candidate interval. This study establishes the presence of a locus for autosomal recessive mutilating sensory neuropathy with spastic paraplegia on chromosome 5p15.31-14.1. (+info)
(64/413) Effect of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness strategy on health care quality in Morocco.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an intervention to promote health workers' use of the World Health Organization's Integrated Management of Childhood Illness clinical guidelines and to identify other factors influencing quality of care received by Moroccan children. SETTING: Public outpatient health facilities. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of consultations with sick children under 5 years old at facilities in two intervention and two comparison provinces in April 2000 (6-12 months after intervention). Consultations were observed, children's caretakers and health workers were interviewed, and children were re-examined by a 'gold standard' study clinician. STUDY PARTICIPANTS: Probability sample of 467 consultations (97.9% participation) performed by 101 health workers in 62 facilities. INTERVENTION: Health workers received in-service training with job aids and a follow-up visit with feedback 4-6 weeks after training. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Index of overall guideline adherence (mean percentage of recommended tasks that were done per child) and the percentage of children requiring antibiotics correctly prescribed antibiotics. RESULTS: Quality of care was better in intervention provinces, according to the adherence index (79.7 versus 19.5%, P < 0.0001), correct prescription of antibiotics (60.8 versus 31.3%, P = 0.0013), and other indicators. Multivariate modeling revealed a variety of factors significantly associated with quality, including health worker attributes (pre-service training, residence in government-subsidized housing, sex, and opinions) and child/consultation attributes (child's age and temperature, number of chief complaints, and caretaker type). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to the intervention was strongly associated with adherence to the guidelines and correct prescribing of antibiotics 6-12 months after exposure. Many other factors may influence health worker performance. (+info)