(1/111) Purification and characterization of the single-component nitric oxide reductase from Ralstonia eutropha H16.
Nitric oxide (NO) reductase was purified from Ralstonia eutropha (formerly Alcaligenes eutrophus) using a two step chromatographic procedure. Unlike the common NO reductases, the enzyme consists of a single subunit of 75 kDa which contains both high-spin and low-spin heme b, but lacks heme c. One additional iron atom, probably a ferric non-heme iron, was identified per enzyme molecule. Whereas reduced cytochrome c was ineffective as electron donor, NO was reduced at a specific activity of 2.3 micromol/min per mg of protein in the presence of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinol. (+info)
(2/111) The Archaeoglobus fulgidus D-lactate dehydrogenase is a Zn(2+) flavoprotein.
Archaeoglobus fulgidus, a hyperthermophilic, archaeal sulfate reducer, is one of the few organisms that can utilize D-lactate as a sole source for both carbon and electrons. The A. fulgidus open reading frame, AF0394, which is predicted to encode a D-(-)-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld), was cloned, and its product was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion with the maltose binding protein (MBP). The 90-kDa MBP-Dld fusion protein was more efficiently expressed in E. coli when coexpressed with the E. coli dnaY gene, encoding the arginyl tRNA for the codons AGA and AGG. When cleaved from the fusion protein by treatment with factor Xa, the recombinant Dld (rDld) has an apparent molecular mass of 50 kDa, similar to that of the native A. fulgidus Dld enzyme. Both the purified MBP-Dld fusion protein and its rDld cleavage fragment have lactate dehydrogenase activities specific for D-lactate, are stable at 80 degrees C, and retain activity after exposure to oxygen. The flavin cofactor FAD, which binds rDld apoprotein with a 1:1 stoichiometry, is essential for activity. (+info)
(3/111) Osmotic and chill activation of glycine betaine porter II in Listeria monocytogenes membrane vesicles.
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen known for its tolerance to conditions of osmotic and chill stress. Accumulation of glycine betaine has been found to be important in the organism's tolerance to both of these stresses. A procedure was developed for the purification of membranes from L. monocytogenes cells in which the putative ATP-driven glycine betaine permease glycine betaine porter II (Gbu) is functional. As is the case for the L. monocytogenes sodium-driven glycine betaine uptake system (glycine betaine porter I), uptake in this vesicle system was dependent on energization by ascorbate-phenazine methosulfate. Vesicles lacking the gbu gene product had no uptake activity. Transport by this porter did not require sodium ion and could be driven only weakly by artificial gradients. Uptake rates could be manipulated under conditions not affecting secondary transport but known to affect ATPase activity. The system was shown to be both osmotically activated and cryoactivated. Under conditions of osmotic activation, the system exhibited Arrhenius-type behavior although the uptake rates were profoundly affected by the physical state of the membrane, with breaks in Arrhenius curves at approximately 10 and 18 degrees C. In the absence of osmotic activation, the permease could be activated by decreasing temperature within the range of 15 to 4 degrees C. Kinetic analyses of the permease at 30 degrees C revealed K(m) values for glycine betaine of 1.2 and 2.9 microM with V(max) values of 2,200 and 3,700 pmol/min. mg of protein under conditions of optimal osmotic activation as mediated by KCl and sucrose, respectively. (+info)
(4/111) Transport of sugars and amino acids in bacteria. XV. Comparative studies on the effects of various energy poisons on the oxidative and phosphorylating activities and energy coupling reactions for the active transport systems for amino acids in E. coli.
The effects of various energy poisons on oxidation of respiratory substrate, synthesis of cellular ATP, and energy transformation reaction in intact Escherichia coli cells were studied systematically. Various mutants were, therefore, used in which specific functions in the energy-transducing reactions were defective or altered. The energy poisons examined were: sodium azide. DPPA and azidebenzenes which are inhibitors of respiratory-chain phosphorylation, SF6847, and CCCP which are known to be uncouplers, zinc sulfate which is an inhibitor for certain dehydrogenases, and sodium arsenate and sodium fluoride which are inhibitors of glycolytic synthesis of ATP. The preferential inhibitions occurred in the oxidation reactions with certain respiratory substrates by energy poisons used. DPPA inhibited glycerol oxidation much more strongly than succinate oxidation. However, DPPA could inhibit the oxidation of both glycerol 3-phosphate and succinate by membrane fraction strongly while the oxidation of NADH and D-lactate slightly. It inhibited glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase [EC 22.214.171.124] strongly as well as succinate dehydrogenase [EC 126.96.36.199],.but not D-lactate dehydrogenase of membrane fraction. MAB and other azidebenzene derivatives inhibited succinate oxidation preferentially. SF6847 and CCCP inhibited succinate oxidation strongly, while sodium azide inhibited it weakly and these three poisons were less inhibitory for glycerol oxidation. DPPA, sodium azide, SF6847, and CCCP inhibited the synthesis of ATP coupled with respiration but not with glycolysis. Zinc sulfate inhibited the cellular ATP synthesis coupled with either respiration or glycolysis. (+info)
(5/111) Regulation of human corneal epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis by dexamethasone.
PURPOSE: To investigate whether human corneal epithelial cells express the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and to assess the influence of dexamethasone (DEX) on these cells. METHODS: Human corneal epithelial cells were cultured in medium supplemented with various concentrations of DEX (ranging from 10(-10) to 10(-4) M). Cell proliferation was analyzed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxy-methoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfop henyl) -2H-tetrazolium inner salt (MTS) assay at 2, 4, and 6 days of culture. Apoptosis was studied by nucleus labeling using a fluorescent dye and immunostaining by APO 2.7 at 6 days of culture. GR mRNA was detected in corneal epithelium and cultured corneal epithelial cells by means of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Immunocytochemical staining of the epithelial cells was performed with a monoclonal anti-human GR. RESULTS: RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry showed the expression of GR (mRNA and protein) in corneal epithelial cells. DEX significantly increased corneal epithelial cell proliferation with concentrations ranging from 10(-10) to 10(-6) M, with a maximum effect at 10(-7) M (P < 0.005). However, DEX also induced apoptosis of cultured corneal epithelial cells at any concentration used. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that human corneal epithelial cells express the GR and proliferate in response to DEX stimulation which also induces corneal epithelial cell apoptosis. (+info)
(6/111) Ubiquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase (complex III). Effect of inhibitors on cytochrome b reduction in submitochondrial particles and the role of ubiquinone in complex III.
Two sets of studies have been reported on the electron transfer pathway of complex III in bovine heart submitochondrial particles (SMP). 1) In the presence of myxothiazol, MOA-stilbene, stigmatellin, or of antimycin added to SMP pretreated with ascorbate and KCN to reduce the high potential components (iron-sulfur protein (ISP) and cytochrome c(1)) of complex III, addition of succinate reduced heme b(H) followed by a slow and partial reduction of heme b(L). Similar results were obtained when SMP were treated only with KCN or NaN(3), reagents that inhibit cytochrome oxidase, not complex III. The average initial rate of b(H) reduction under these conditions was about 25-30% of the rate of b reduction by succinate in antimycin-treated SMP, where both b(H) and b(L) were concomitantly reduced. These results have been discussed in relation to the Q-cycle hypothesis and the effect of the redox state of ISP/c(1) on cytochrome b reduction by succinate. 2) Reverse electron transfer from ISP reduced with ascorbate plus phenazine methosulfate to cytochrome b was studied in SMP, ubiquinone (Q)-depleted SMP containing =0.06 mol of Q/mol of complex III, and Q-replenished SMP. The results showed that Q was not required for electron transfer from ISP to b, a reaction that was inhibited by antimycin (also by myxothiazol or MOA-stilbene as reported elsewhere). It was also shown that antimycin did not inhibit electron transfer from b (b(H)) to Q, in clear contrast to the assumption of the Q-cycle hypothesis regarding the site of antimycin inhibition. (+info)
(7/111) Signaling by eNOS through a superoxide-dependent p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.
Expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in transfected U-937 cells upregulates phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production through a superoxide (O(2)(-))-dependent mechanism. Because mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) have been shown to participate in both reactive oxygen species signaling and TNF-alpha regulation, their possible role in eNOS-derived O(2)(-) signal transduction was examined. A redox-cycling agent, phenazine methosulfate, was found to both upregulate TNF-alpha (5.8 +/- 1.0 fold; P = 0.01) and increase the phosphorylation state of p42/44 MAPK (3.1 +/- 0.2 fold; P = 0.01) in PMA-differentiated U-937 cells. Although S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, a nitric oxide (NO) donor, also increased TNF-alpha production, NO exposure led to phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, not p42/44 MAPK. Upregulation of TNF-alpha production by eNOS transfection was associated with increases in activated p42/44 MAPK (P = 0.001), whereas levels of phosphorylated p38 MAPK were unaffected. Furthermore, cotransfection with Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, which blocks TNF-alpha upregulation by eNOS, also abolished the effects on p42/44 MAPK. Expression of Gln(361)eNOS, a mutant that produces O(2)(-) but not NO, still resulted in p42/44 MAPK phosphorylation. In contrast, two NADPH binding site deletion mutants of eNOS that lack oxidase activity had no effect on p42/44 MAPK. Finally, PD-98059, a p42/44 MAPK pathway inhibitor, blocked TNF-alpha upregulation by eNOS (P = 0.02). Thus O(2)(-) produced by eNOS increases TNF-alpha production via a mechanism that involves p42/44 MAPK activation. (+info)
(8/111) Development of a synchronous enzyme-reaction system for a highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay.
A synchronous enzyme-reaction system using water-soluble formazan and a non-enzymatic electron mediator was developed and applied to an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The reaction system consists of four steps: (I) dephosphorylation of NADP(+) to produce NAD(+) by alkaline phosphatase (ALP), (II) reduction of NAD(+) to produce NADH with oxidation of ethanol to yield acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), (III) reduction of water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-1) to produce formazan by NADH via 1-methoxy-5-methyl-phenazinium methyl sulfate (PMS), and (IV) re-reduction of NAD(+) to produce NADH by ADH. During each cycle, one molecule of tetrazolium is converted to one molecule of formazan. The concentration of formazan during the reaction was given by second-order polynomials of the reaction time. Kinetic studies strongly suggested that the synchronous enzyme-reaction system had the potential to detect an analyte at the attomole level in EIA. On the basis of the kinetic studies, optimal conditions for EIA incorporating the synchronous system were examined. NADP(+) was purified thoroughly to remove minor traces of NAD(+) in the preparation, and an ADH preparation contaminated with the lowest level of ALP activity was used. When the synchronous system was applied to a sandwich-type EIA for human C-reactive protein, the protein was detected with a sensitivity of 50 attomole per well of a micro-titer plate (0.1 ml) in a 1-h reaction. In addition, EIA with water-soluble formazan showed a more quantitative and sensitive result than that with insoluble formazan. These findings indicated that the (WST-1)-PMS system introduced in this study has a great potential for highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay. (+info)