(65/97) Knowledge exchange processes in organizations and policy arenas: a narrative systematic review of the literature.
(66/97) An analysis of lobbying activity on tobacco issues in the Wisconsin legislature.
BACKGROUND: Although public and media attention has focused on the federal role in the regulation of tobacco products, state government remains an important arena for changing tobacco control policies. Lobbying state officials by public health and the tobacco industry is a commonly used mechanism to influence public policy. METHODS: Major bills of the 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 Wisconsin legislative sessions related to tobacco use regulation were analyzed by the hours engaged in lobbying and the estimated expenditures by supporters and opponents of tobacco control legislation in reports submitted to the Government Accountability Board. RESULTS: In the 2007-2008 legislative session, anti-tobacco control organizations reported lobbying expenditures of more than $2 million (2627 hours) while opposing bills to raise tobacco excise taxes and enact smoke-free legislation; pro-tobacco control organizations reported lobbying expenditures of $623,000 (3997 hours) while supporting these bills. In the first 6 months of the 2009 session, anti-tobacco control groups spent $1.25 million (1472 hours) and pro-tobacco control groups spent $172,000 (1727 hours). CONCLUSION: In the 2007-2008 legislative session, the proposal to increase the tobacco tax by $1 per pack was passed. However, the smoke-free indoor air bill was defeated. Anti-tobacco control organizations outspent pro-tobacco control organizations by a margin of over 3:1. In 2009 anti-tobacco control groups outspent health groups by a ratio of 7:1. Legislation for smoke-free workplaces and an increase in the cigarette tax was enacted. However, funding for tobacco prevention and treatment programs was substantially reduced. (+info)
(67/97) Lessons learned on the road to a smoke-free Italy.
In the face of strong and protracted opposition by the Tobacco Industry (TI) and its allies, Italy's national smoke-free legislation came into force in 2005 prohibiting smoking in all indoor public places and workplaces including offices, bars, and restaurants. Using internal TI documents made public through US litigation, we reveal the industry's nearly 40-year effort to influence health policy related to secondhand smoke, including attempts to block Italy's national smoke-free legislation. Strategies included manipulating hospitality groups and establishing front organizations, manipulating journalists and media, and manipulating the science and direct lobbying against smoking restrictions. The TI's extensive plan to thwart smoke-free efforts in Italy can be used to inform other countries about the industry's tactics and Italy's experience in overcoming them by ultimately implementing a comprehensive workplace smoke-free law. (+info)
(68/97) Local Nordic tobacco interests collaborated with multinational companies to maintain a united front and undermine tobacco control policies.
(69/97) Role of professional organizations in advocating for the nursing profession.
Professional organizations and associations in nursing are critical for generating the energy, flow of ideas, and proactive work needed to maintain a healthy profession that advocates for the needs of its clients and nurses, and the trust of society. In this article the author discusses the characteristics of a profession, reviews the history of professional nursing organizations, and describes the advocacy activities of professional nursing organizations. Throughout, she explains how the three foundational documents of the nursing profession emphasize nursing advocacy by the professional organizations as outlined in the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses With Interpretive Statements. The author concludes by encouraging all nurses to engage in their professional organizations and associations, noting how these organizations contribute to the accountability and voice of the profession to society. (+info)
(70/97) Advocating for nurses and nursing.
Every nurse has the opportunity to make a positive impact on the profession through day-to-day advocacy for nurses and the nursing profession. In this article the author defines advocacy; describes advocacy skills every nurse can employ to advocate for a safe and healthy work environment; and explains how nurses can advocate for nursing as part of their daily activity whether they are point-of-care nurses, nurse managers, or nurse educators. The advocacy practices discussed are applicable whether advocating on one's own behalf, for colleagues at the unit level, or for issues at the organizational or system level. (+info)
(71/97) Advocating globally to shape policy and strengthen nursing's influence.
The International Council of Nurses is a federation of national nursing associations that works to enable nurses to speak with one voice so as to influence health policy and advance the profession of nursing. In this article the author highlights how nurses can advocate for the nursing profession by coordinating nursing actions to develop both public and healthcare-service policies. He addresses issues that are common in many parts of the world and provides examples drawn from real-life experiences that illustrate how nurses in El Salvador, Rwanda, Paraguay, Papua New Guinea, and Iran have worked in their countries to coordinate their actions and advocate for public and/or healthcare service policies within their countries. He concludes by noting that all nurses must do their part and use a wide range of opportunities creatively, and with clarity of intent, to improve the profession and the lives of the millions of people who depend upon us. (+info)
(72/97) Pharmaceutical companies' role in state vaccination policymaking: the case of human papillomavirus vaccination.