(25/97) The tobacco industry's use of Wall Street analysts in shaping policy.
OBJECTIVE: To document how the tobacco industry has used Wall Street analysts to further its public policy objectives. METHODS: Searching tobacco documents available on the internet, newspaper articles, and transcripts of public hearings. RESULTS: The tobacco industry used nominally independent Wall Street analysts as third parties to support the tobacco industry's legislative agenda at both national and state levels in the USA. The tobacco industry has, for example, edited the testimony of at least one analyst before he testified to the US Senate Judiciary Committee, while representing himself as independent of the industry. CONCLUSION: The tobacco industry has used undisclosed collaboration with Wall Street analysts, as they have used undisclosed relationships with research scientists and academics, to advance the interests of the tobacco industry in public policy. (+info)
(26/97) Hedging their bets: tobacco and gambling industries work against smoke-free policies.
OBJECTIVE: To describe and understand the relationship between the tobacco and gambling industries in connection to their collaborative efforts to prevent smoke-free casinos and gambling facilities and fight smoke-free policies generally. METHODS: Analysis of tobacco industry documents available online (accessed between February and December 2003). RESULTS: The tobacco industry has worked to convince the gambling industry to fight against smoke-free environments. Representatives of the gambling industry with ties to the tobacco industry oppose smoke-free workplaces by claiming that smoke-free environments hurt gambling revenue and by promoting ventilation as a solution to secondhand smoke. With help from the tobacco industry, the gambling industry has become a force at the American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers opposing smoke-free ventilation standards for the hospitality industry. CONCLUSION: Tobacco industry strategies to mobilise the gambling industry to oppose smoke-free environments are consistent with past strategies to co-opt the hospitality industry and with strategies to influence policy from behind the scenes. Tobacco control advocates need to be aware of the connections between the tobacco and gambling industries in relation to smoke-free environments and work to expose them to the public and to policy makers. (+info)
(27/97) "A phony way to show sincerity, as we all well know": tobacco industry lobbying against tobacco control in Hong Kong.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the tobacco industry's efforts to influence public policy and block the legislative process on tobacco control in Hong Kong, 1973 to 1997. METHOD: Systematic review of relevant tobacco industry documents made public via the Master Settlement Agreement. RESULTS: The tobacco industry in Hong Kong has sought to manipulate the policymaking process and delay the introduction of tobacco control legislation in Hong Kong from at least 1973. The industry ensured that each of the government's initial meagre steps toward tobacco control were delayed and thwarted by drawn out "cooperation" followed by voluntary concessions on issues the industry regarded as minor. By the 1980s the government had became increasingly active in tobacco control and introduced a number of initiatives, resulting in some of the tightest legislative restrictions on smoking in Asia. The tobacco industry was successful in thwarting only one of these initiatives. CONCLUSIONS: Throughout the 1980s and 1990s two factors played a significant role in hindering the tobacco industry from successfully blocking policy initiatives: a growing political imperative, and an active and sophisticated tobacco control movement. Political will to promote public health and a strong tobacco control advocacy presence can enable governments to resist the enormous pressure exerted upon them by multinational tobacco companies. (+info)
(28/97) "Asia is now the priority target for the world anti-tobacco movement": attempts by the tobacco industry to undermine the Asian anti-smoking movement.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To identify and examine the strategies utilised by multinational tobacco companies to undermine and discredit key anti-tobacco activists and organisations in the Asian region. METHOD: A series of case studies drawing upon material gathered through systematic reviews of internal tobacco industry documents. DATE SOURCES: Tobacco industry documents made public as part of the settlement of the Minnesota Tobacco Trial and the Master Settlement Agreement. RESULTS: The industry sought to identify, monitor, and isolate key individuals and organisations. The way industry went about fulfilling this mandate in the Asian region is discussed. Industry targetted individuals and agencies along with the region's primary anti-smoking coalition. CONCLUSIONS: Attack by multinational tobacco companies is a virtual quid pro quo for any individual or agency seriously challenging industry practices and policies. Understanding their tactics allows anticipatory strategies to be developed to minimise the effectiveness of these attacks. (+info)
(29/97) Industry sponsored youth smoking prevention programme in Malaysia: a case study in duplicity.
OBJECTIVE: To review tobacco company strategies of using youth smoking prevention programmes to counteract the Malaysian government's tobacco control legislation and efforts in conducting research on youth to market to them. METHODS: Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private internal industry documents. Search terms included Malay, cmtm, jaycees, YAS, and direct marketing; 195 relevant documents were identified for this paper. RESULTS: Industry internal documents reveal that youth anti-smoking programmes were launched to offset the government's tobacco control legislation. The programme was seen as a strategy to lobby key politicians and bureaucrats for support in preventing the passage of legislation. However, the industry continued to conduct research on youth, targeted them in marketing, and considered the teenage market vital for its survival. Promotional activities targeting youth were also carried out such as sports, notably football and motor racing, and entertainment events and cash prizes. Small, affordable packs of cigarettes were crucial to reach new smokers. CONCLUSION: The tobacco industry in Malaysia engaged in duplicitous conduct in regard to youth. By buying into the youth smoking issue it sought to move higher on the moral playing field and strengthen its relationship with government, while at the same time continuing to market to youth. There is no evidence that industry youth smoking prevention programmes were effective in reducing smoking; however, they were effective in diluting the government's tobacco control legislation. (+info)
(30/97) "Care and feeding": the Asian environmental tobacco smoke consultants programme.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To review the tobacco industry's Asian environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) consultants programme, focusing on three key nations: China, Hong Kong, and Malaysia. METHODS: Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private internal industry documents. MAIN RESULTS: The release of the 1986 US Surgeon General's report on second hand smoke provoked tobacco companies to prepare for a major threat to their industry. Asian programme activities included conducting national/international symposiums, consultant "road shows" and extensive lobbying and media activities. The industry exploited confounding factors said to be unique to Asian societies such as diet, culture and urban pollution to downplay the health risks of ETS. The industry consultants were said to be "..prepared to do the kinds of things they were recruited to do". CONCLUSIONS: The programme was successful in blurring the science on ETS and keeping the controversy alive both nationally and internationally. For the duration of the project, it also successfully dissuaded national policy makers from instituting comprehensive bans on smoking in public places. (+info)
(31/97) A mire of highly subjective and ineffective voluntary guidelines: tobacco industry efforts to thwart tobacco control in Malaysia.
OBJECTIVE: To describe tobacco industry efforts in Malaysia to thwart government efforts to regulate tobacco promotion and health warnings. METHODS: Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement and secondary websites; relevant information from news articles and financial reports. RESULTS: Commencing in the 1970s, the industry began to systematically thwart government tobacco control. Guidelines were successfully promoted in the place of legislation for over two decades. Even when the government succeeded in implementing regulations such as health warnings and advertising bans they were compromised and acted effectively to retard further progress for years to come. CONCLUSION: Counter-measures to delay or thwart government efforts to regulate tobacco were initiated by the industry. Though not unique to Malaysia, the main difference lies in the degree to which strategies were used to successfully counter stringent tobacco control measures between 1970 and 1995. (+info)
(32/97) "The world's most hostile environment": how the tobacco industry circumvented Singapore's advertising ban.
OBJECTIVE: To review how tobacco transnational companies conducted their business in the hostile environment of Singapore, attempting to counter some of the government's tobacco control measures; to compare the Malaysian and the Singaporean governments' stance on tobacco control and the direct bearing of this on the way the tobacco companies conduct their business. METHODS: Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private internal industry documents. RESULTS: The comprehensive prohibition on advertising did not prevent the companies from advertising cigarettes to Singaporeans. Both British American Tobacco and Philip Morris used Malaysian television to advertise into Singapore. To launch a new brand of cigarettes, Alpine, Philip Morris used a non-tobacco product, the Alpine wine cooler. Other creative strategies such as innovative packaging and display units at retailers were explored to overcome the restrictions. Philip Morris experimented with developing a prototype cigarette using aroma and sweetened tipping paper to target the young and health conscious. The industry sought to weaken the strong pack warnings. The industry distributed anti-smoking posters for youth to retailers but privately salivated over their market potential. (+info)