(1/175) Comparative SEM evaluation of penetration of adhesive systems in human dentin with a non-rinse conditioner and a self-etching primer.
The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of a self-etching primer and a non-rinse conditioner with the effect of a conventional adhesive system on the penetration depth in dentin of human teeth, using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Fifteen human third molar teeth were sectioned into 2 pieces. All pieces were flattened with grade 600 to 1200 silicon carbide paper and divided into 6 groups: group 1 - Prime & Bond NT (NT), negative control; group 2 - 37% phosphoric acid + Prime & Bond NT (PANT), positive control; group 3 - Non-rinse Conditioner (NRC) + Prime & Bond NT (NRCNT); group 4 - NRC + Prime & Bond 2.1 (NRCPB); group 5 - NRC + Scotchbond MP (NRCSB); group 6 - Prompt L-Pop (PLP). All teeth were covered with Dyract AP. The tooth fragments were decalcified, and its resin replicas were evaluated by SEM by three previously standardized examiners. The penetration was scored from 0 (no penetration) to 3 (maximum penetration). The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (p<0.05) showed three statistically homogeneous groups: (NT, NRCPB, NRCSB and PLP), (NRCNT) and [PANT]. The authors concluded that the self-etching primer and the non-rinse conditioner provide a lower penetration depth in human tooth dentin than the conventional adhesive system. (+info)
(2/175) Evaluation of depth of cure and Knoop hardness in a dental composite photo-activated using different methods.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the depth of cure and Knoop hardness in the P60 composite resin photo-activated using different methods. A bipartite brass matrix (3 mm in diameter X 11 mm in height) was filled with the composite and photo-activation was performed using continuous light, exponential light, intermittent light, plasma arc curing (PAC) or light-emitting diodes (LED). After opening the matrix, the uncured material was removed with a steel spatula and the polymerized composite was measured using a pachymeter. The specimens were then included in self-curing acrylic resin and worn longitudinally and the hardness was measured on the surface and at depths of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mm. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (5%). The results showed that the depth of cure was higher with the intermittent light, followed by continuous light, exponential light, PAC and LED methods. Up to a depth of 2 mm, all methods revealed similar hardness values, but there were differences between them at other depths, at which LED demonstrated the lowest values followed by PAC. (+info)
(3/175) Effect of the increase of energy density on Knoop hardness of dental composites light-cured by conventional QTH, LED and xenon plasma arc.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the increase of energy density on Knoop hardness of Z250 and Esthet-X composite resins. Cylindrical cavities (3 mm in diameter X 3 mm in depth) were prepared on the buccal surface of 144 bovine incisors. The composite resins were bulk-inserted and polymerized using different light-curing units and times: conventional QTH (quartz-tungsten-halogen; 700 mW/cm(2); 20 s, 30 s and 40 s); LED (light-emitting diode; 440 mW/cm(2); 20 s, 30 s and 40 s); PAC (xenon plasma arc; 1700 mW/cm(2); 3 s, 4.5 s and 6 s). The specimens were stored at 37 degrees C for 24 h prior to sectioning for Knoop hardness assessment. Three measurements were obtained for each depth: top surface, 1 mm and 2 mm. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Regardless of the light source or energy density, Knoop hardness of Z250 was statistically significant higher than that of Esthet-X (p<0.05). Specimens cured with PAC had lower hardness than those cured with QTH and LED (p<0.05). Higher Knoop hardness was obtained when the energy density was increased for LED and PAC (p<0.05). No statistically significant differences (p>0.05) were found for QTH. Knoop hardness values decreased with the increase of depth. The increase of energy density produced composites with higher Knoop hardness means using LED and PAC. (+info)
(4/175) Effect of different initial light intensity by the soft-start photoactivation on the bond strength and Knoop hardness of a dental composite.
This study evaluated the bond strength (push-out method) and Knoop hardness of Z250 composite resin, photoactivated with XL 2500 curing unit, using different protocols: continuous mode (700 mW/cm(2) for 20s) (CO); soft-start (50 mW/cm(2) for 5 s, followed by 700 mW/cm(2) for 15 s) (SS1); soft-start (100 mW/cm(2) for 5 s, followed by 700 mW/cm(2) for 15 s) (SS2); soft-start (150 mW/cm(2) for 5 s, followed by 700 mW/cm(2) for 15s) (SS3); soft-start (200 mW/cm(2) for 5s, followed by 700 mW/cm(2) for 15s) (SS4); soft-start (250 mW/cm(2) for 5 s, followed by 700 mW/cm(2) for 15 s) (SS5); soft-start (300 mW/cm(2) for 5 s, followed by 700 mW/cm(2) for 15 s) (SS6). For the push-out test, the specimens were tested in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. For the hardness test, the specimens were polished for the hardness measurements, using a 50 g load for 15 s. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=5%). The results of bond strength showed that the SS3 group obtained the highest bond strength when compared to the CO group. There were no significant differences among the other modes in relation to the other groups. Regarding the other results in hardness, there were no significant differences among the groups in the surface region and up to 4 mm depth. (+info)
(5/175) Color stability of composites subjected to accelerated aging after curing using either a halogen or a light emitting diode source.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the color stability of three composite resins of two different shades (A3 and C3) cured with either a quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) or a light emitting diode (LED) source. Forty specimens (20 x 2 mm) were prepared for each composite (Tetric Ceram, Heliomolar and Esthet-X), being 20 for each shade. In each group, 10 specimens were light-cured using the QTH unit and 10 with the LED source. The shade of the materials was evaluated before and after submitting the specimens to artificial accelerated aging (4 h UV-B/4 h condensing vapor), using a reflection spectrophotometer. deltaE means were calculated and analyzed statistically by 2-way ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% significance level. Both A3 and C3 shades of Esthet-X composite resin showed the lowest color change when cured with the QTH light, while Tetric C3 cured with the QTH light showed the highest color change. (+info)
(6/175) Influence of shade and irradiation time on the hardness of composite resins.
This study tested the following hypotheses: 1. increasing light irradiation time (IT) produces greater values of superficial hardness on different depths (0 and 3 mm); and 2. a dark shade composite (A3) needs longer IT than a light shade composite (A1) to produce similar hardness. Disk-shaped specimens (n=24 per shade) were fabricated using a 3-mm-thick increment of composite resin (Z100). Specimens were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=8) according to the IT (400 mW/cm2) at the upper (U) surface: A1-10 and A3-10: 10 s; A1-20 and A3-20: 20 s; A1-40 and A3-40: 40 s. Specimens were stored in black lightproof containers at 37 masculineC for 24 h before indentation in a hardness tester. Three Vickers indentations were performed on the U and lower (L) surfaces of each specimen. The indent diagonals were measured and the hardness value calculated. The results were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=0.05). Statistically significant differences were found between U and L surfaces of each composite shade-IT combination (p=0.0001) and among the ITs of same shade-surface combination (p=0.0001), except between groups A1-20U and A1-40U, confirming the study hypothesis 1 and partially rejecting the hypothesis 2. (+info)
(7/175) Effect of veneering materials and curing methods on resin cement knoop hardness.
This study evaluated the Knoop hardness of Enforce resin cement activated by the either chemical/physical or physical mode, and light cured directly and through ceramic (HeraCeram) or composite resin (Artglass). Light curing were performed with either conventional halogen light (QTH; XL2500) for 40 s or xenon plasma arc (PAC; Apollo 95E) for 3 s. Bovine incisors had their buccal surfaces flattened and hybridized. On these surfaces a mold was seated and filled with cement. A 1.5-mm-thick disc of the veneering material was seated over this set for light curing. After storage (24 h/37 masculineC), specimens (n=10) were sectioned for hardness (KHN) measurements in a micro-hardness tester (50 gf load/ 15 s). Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=0.05). It was observed that the dual cure mode yielded higher hardness compared to the physical mode alone, except for direct light curing with the QTH unit and through Artglass. Higher hardness was observed with QTH compared to PAC, except for Artglass/dual groups, in which similar hardness means were obtained. Low KHN means were obtained with PAC for both Artglass and HeraCeram. It may be concluded that the hardness of resin cements may be influenced by the presence of an indirect restorative material and the type of light-curing unit. (+info)
(8/175) Effect of light-curing methods on resin cement Knoop hardness at different depths.
This study evaluated, using Knoop hardness test, the polymerization depth of Rely-X dual-cured resin cement activated by chemical reaction alone (control group) or by chemical/physical mode with light curing through a 1.5-mm-thick ceramic layer (HeraCeram). Bovine incisors had their buccal surface flattened and hybridized. On this surface, a rubber mould (5 mm diameter; 1 mm high) was bulk filled with cement. Either a polyester strip or a 1.5-mm-thick disc of the veneering material was seated over this set. Light curing was performed with either conventional halogen light (QTH; XL2500) for 40 s, light-emitting diode (LED; Ultrablue Is) for 40 s or xenon plasma arc (PAC; Apollo 95E) for 3 s. In a control group, cement setting occurred by chemical reaction alone. After storage dry in dark (24 h/37 degrees C), the specimens (n=5) were sectioned for hardness (KHN) measurements at three depths in a microhardness tester (50 gf load/15 s). Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha = 0.05). Rely-X cement presented higher Knoop hardness values when the QTH and LED LCUs were used, compared to the control group and PAC. Light curing with PAC resulted in lower hardness compared to the control group. Cement hardness was significantly lower in deeper regions. (+info)