(9/1316) Antimycobacterial activities of isoxyl and new derivatives through the inhibition of mycolic acid synthesis.
Isoxyl (ISO), a thiourea (thiocarlide; 4, 4'-diisoamyloxythiocarbanilide), demonstrated potent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (MIC, 2.5 micrograms/ml), Mycobacterium bovis BCG (MIC, 0.5 microgram/ml), Mycobacterium avium (MIC, 2.0 microgram/ml), and Mycobacterium aurum A+ (MIC, 2.0 microgram/ml), resulting in complete inhibition of mycobacteria grown on solid media. Importantly, a panel of clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis from different geographical areas with various drug resistance patterns were all sensitive to ISO in the range of 1 to 10 microgram/ml. In a murine macrophage model, ISO exhibited bactericidal killing of viable intracellular M. tuberculosis in a dose-dependent manner (0.05 to 2.50 microgram/ml). The selective action of ISO on mycolic acid synthesis was studied through the use of [1, 2-14C]acetate labeling of M. tuberculosis H37Rv, M. bovis BCG, and M. aurum A+. At its MIC for M. tuberculosis, ISO inhibited the synthesis of both fatty acids and mycolic acids (alpha-mycolates by 91.6%, methoxymycolates by 94.3%, and ketomycolates by 91.1%); at its MIC in M. bovis BCG, ISO inhibited the synthesis of alpha-mycolates by 87.2% and that of ketomycolates by 88.5%; and the corresponding inhibitions for M. aurum A+ were 87.1% for alpha-mycolates, 87.2% for ketomycolates, and 86.5% for the wax-ester mycolates. A comparison with isoniazid (INH) and ethionamide (ETH) demonstrated marked similarity in action, i.e., inhibition of the synthesis of all kinds of mycolic acids. However, unlike INH and ETH, ISO also inhibited the synthesis of shorter-chain fatty acids. ISO showed no acute toxicity against primary macrophage cell cultures as demonstrated by diminution of redox activity. A homologous series of ISO derivatives were synthesized. Most derivatives were as effective or more effective than the parent compound in the agar proportion assay. Thus, these thioureas, like INH and ETH, specifically inhibit mycolic acid synthesis and show promise in counteracting a wide variety of drug-sensitive and -resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. (+info)
(10/1316) Mycobacterium bovis BCG causing vertebral osteomyelitis (Pott's disease) following intravesical BCG therapy.
We report a case of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vertebral osteomyelitis in a 79-year-old man 2.5 years after intravesical BCG therapy for bladder cancer. The recovered isolate resembled M. tuberculosis biochemically, but resistance to pyrazinamide (PZA) rendered that diagnosis suspect. High-pressure liquid chromatographic studies confirmed the diagnosis of M. bovis BCG infection. The patient was originally started on a four-drug antituberculous regimen of isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and PZA. When susceptibility studies were reported, the regimen was changed to isoniazid and rifampin for 12 months. Subsequently, the patient was transferred to a skilled nursing facility for 3 months, where he underwent intensive physical therapy. Although extravesical adverse reactions are rare, clinicians and clinical microbiologists need to be aware of the possibility of disseminated infection by M. bovis BCG in the appropriate setting of clinical history, physical examination, and laboratory investigation. (+info)
(11/1316) The role of biotransformation in chemical-induced liver injury.
The role of drug metabolism in chemical-induced liver injury is reviewed. Parameters for studying the formation of chemically reactive metabolites are discussed and the factors that alter the formation and covalent binding of reactive metabolites are selectively emphasized. Some of the experimental work that led to these concepts is discussed, especially the chemical toxicology of the hepatic injury produced by acetaminophen, bromobenzene, furosemide, isoniazid and iproniazid. (+info)
(12/1316) The potential of iron chelators of the pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone class as effective antiproliferative agents III: the effect of the ligands on molecular targets involved in proliferation.
We have identified specific iron (Fe) chelators of the pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone (PIH) class that are far more effective ligands than desferrioxamine (DFO; Richardson et al, Blood 86:4295, 1995; Richardson and Milnes, Blood 89:3025, 1997). In the present study, we have compared the effect of DFO and one of the most active chelators (2-hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone; 311) on molecular targets involved in proliferation. This was performed to further understand the mechanisms involved in the antitumor activity of Fe chelators. Ligand 311 was far more active than DFO at increasing Fe release from SK-N-MC neuroepithelioma and BE-2 neuroblastoma cells and preventing Fe uptake from transferrin. Like DFO, 311 increased the RNA-binding activity of the iron-regulatory proteins (IRPs). However, despite the far greater Fe chelation efficacy of 311 compared with DFO, a similar increase in IRP-RNA binding activity occurred after 2 to 4 hours of incubation with either chelator, and the binding activity was not inhibited by cycloheximide. These results suggest that, irrespective of the Fe chelation efficacy of a ligand, an increase IRP-RNA binding activity occurred via a time-dependent step that did not require protein synthesis. Further studies examined the effect of 311 and DFO on the expression of p53-transactivated genes that are crucial for cell cycle control and DNA repair, namely WAF1, GADD45, and mdm-2. Incubation of 3 different cell lines with DFO or 311 caused a pronounced concentration- and time-dependent increase in the expression of WAF1 and GADD45 mRNA, but not mdm-2 mRNA. In accordance with the distinct differences in Fe chelation efficacy and antiproliferative activity of DFO and 311, much higher concentrations of DFO (150 micromol/L) than 311 (2.5 to 5 micromol/L) were required to markedly increase GADD45 and WAF1 mRNA levels. The increase in GADD45 and WAF1 mRNA expression was seen only after 20 hours of incubation with the chelators and was reversible after removal of the ligands. In contrast to the chelators, the Fe(III) complexes of DFO and 311 had no effect on increasing GADD45 and WAF1 mRNA levels, suggesting that Fe chelation was required. Finally, the increase in GADD45 and WAF1 mRNAs appeared to occur by a p53-independent pathway in SK-N-MC and K562 cells, because these cell lines lack functional p53. Our results suggest that GADD45 and WAF1 may play important roles in the cell cycle arrest observed after exposure to these chelators. (+info)
(13/1316) Five-year assessment of controlled trials of short-course chemotherapy regimens of 6, 9 or 18 months' duration for spinal tuberculosis in patients ambulatory from the start or undergoing radical surgery. Fourteenth report of the Medical Research Council Working Party on Tuberculosis of the Spine.
The five-year assessment of three randomised trials of short course (6, 9 or 18 months) chemotherapy for tuberculosis of the spine is reported. In Hong Kong patients were randomised to isoniazid plus rifampicin (HR) daily for 6 or 9 months, combined with radical surgical resection with bone grafting and streptomycin for 6 months for all patients. In Madras patients were randomised to chemotherapy with HR for 6 or 9 months, or 6 months HR chemotherapy combined with surgical resection. In Korea all patients were ambulatory and were randomised to different regimens of chemotherapy 6 or 9 months HR, or 9 or 18 months isoniazid plus ethambutol. (EH) or isoniazid plus PAS (PH). In all centres the results of the 6- and 9-month regimens of HR were excellent and similar to the 18-month EH and PH regimens. The 9-month EH/PH regimens were clearly inferior. In Hong Kong excellent results were achieved by the radical resection. The disease was however less extensive than in Madras, where the results after surgery were no better than with ambulatory chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is the critical factor in the management of tuberculosis of the spine. Efforts should be concentrated on ensuring that appropriate regimens are given under adequate supervision. (+info)
(14/1316) Contribution of kasA analysis to detection of isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Singapore.
Genotypic analysis of resistance to isoniazid (INH) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is complex due to the various genes potentially involved. Mutations in ketoacyl acyl carrier protein synthase (encoded by kasA) were present in 16 of 160 (10%) INH-resistant isolates (R121K [n = 1], G269S [n = 3], G312S [n = 11], G387D [n = 1]). However, G312S was also present in 6 of 32 (19%) susceptible strains. kasA analysis contributed marginally to the performance of INH genotypic testing in Singapore. The significance of kasA polymorphisms in INH resistance should be carefully established. (+info)
(15/1316) Drug resistance patterns among hospitalized tuberculous patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1993-1994.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the prevalence and risk factors for drug resistance among hospitalized patients in two tertiary care centers, an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) reference center and a sanatorium, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From 1993-1994, 389 patients were diagnosed as having tuberculosis (TB). Isolates from 265 patients were tested for in vitro susceptibility to rifampin and isoniazid. Resistance to one or more drugs was detected in 44 patients (16.6%) and was significantly more common among recurrent cases in both hospitals (p=0.03 in the AIDS center and p=0.001 in the sanatorium). Twenty seven patients (10.2%) had isolates resistant to both isoniazid and rifampin. Multi-drug resistance was associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among patients who had never been treated for TB. In conclusion, drug-resistant TB is high in hospitalized patients in Rio de Janeiro, especially among HIV infected patients. Therefore, measures to control TB and prevent nosocomial transmission need urgently to be set up in the Brazilian hospitals. (+info)
(16/1316) Discrimination of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis IS6110 fingerprint subclusters by rpoB gene mutation analysis.
The rpoB gene mutations in a 69-bp region of the gene, resulting in resistance to rifampin, were used to discriminate between Mycobacterium tuberculosis IS6110 fingerprint subclusters. These subclusters exhibited identical IS6110 fragments or had one or two additional fragments. In the two major subclusters all the analyzed strains have the same variant rpoB allele but are different from each other, suggesting the occurrence of independent outbreaks. (+info)