The biotransformation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene and phenanthrene was investigated by using two dioxygenase-expressing bacteria, Pseudomonas sp. strain 9816/11 and Sphingomonas yanoikuyae B8/36, under conditions which facilitate mass-transfer limited substrate oxidation. Both of these strains are mutants that accumulate cis-dihydrodiol metabolites under the reaction conditions used. The effects of the nonpolar solvent 2,2,4, 4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (HMN) and the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 on the rate of accumulation of these metabolites were determined. HMN increased the rate of accumulation of metabolites for both microorganisms, with both substrates. The enhancement effect was most noticeable with phenanthrene, which has a lower aqueous solubility than naphthalene. Triton X-100 increased the rate of oxidation of the PAHs with strain 9816/11 with the effect being most noticeable when phenanthrene was used as a substrate. However, the surfactant inhibited the biotransformation of both naphthalene and phenanthrene with strain B8/36 under the same conditions. The observation that a nonionic surfactant could have such contrasting effects on PAH oxidation by different bacteria, which are known to be important for the degradation of these compounds in the environment, may explain why previous research on the application of the surfactants to PAH bioremediation has yielded inconclusive results. The surfactant inhibited growth of the wild-type strain S. yanoikuyae B1 on aromatic compounds but did not inhibit B8/36 dioxygenase enzyme activity in vitro. (+info)
(2/332) Aromatic ring cleavage of a non-phenolic beta-O-4 lignin model dimer by laccase of Trametes versicolor in the presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole.
The novel cleavage products, 2,3-dihydroxy-1-(4-ethoxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-formyloxypropane (II) and 1-(4-ethoxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,2,3-trihydroxypropane-2,3-cyclic carbonate (III) were identified as products of a non-phenolic beta-O-4 lignin model dimer, 1,3-dihydroxy-2-(2,6-dimethoxylphenoxy)-1-(4-ethoxy-3-methoxypheny l)propane (I), by a Trametes versicolor laccase in the presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (1-HBT). An isotopic experiment with a 13C-labeled lignin model dimer, 1,3-dihydroxy-2-(2,6-[U-ring-13C] dimethoxyphenoxy)-1-(4-ethoxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propane (I-13C) indicated that the formyl and carbonate carbons of products II and III were derived from the beta-phenoxy group of beta-O-4 lignin model dimer I as aromatic ring cleavage fragments. These results show that the laccase-1-HBT couple could catalyze the aromatic ring cleavage of non-phenolic beta-O-4 lignin model dimer in addition to the beta-ether cleavage, Calpha-Cbeta cleavage, and Calpha-oxidation. (+info)
(3/332) Microbiology of the oil fly, Helaeomyia petrolei.
Helaeomyia petrolei larvae isolated from the asphalt seeps of Rancho La Brea in Los Angeles, Calif., were examined for microbial gut contents. Standard counts on Luria-Bertani, MacConkey, and blood agar plates indicated ca. 2 x 10(5) heterotrophic bacteria per larva. The culturable bacteria represented 15 to 20% of the total population as determined by acridine orange staining. The gut itself contained large amounts of the oil, had no observable ceca, and maintained a slightly acidic pH of 6.3 to 6.5. Despite the ingestion of large amounts of potentially toxic asphalt by the larvae, their guts sustained the growth of 100 to 1,000 times more bacteria than did free oil. All of the bacteria isolated were nonsporeformers and gram negative. Fourteen isolates were chosen based on representative colony morphologies and were identified by using the Enterotube II and API 20E systems and fatty acid analysis. Of the 14 isolates, 9 were identified as Providencia rettgeri and 3 were likely Acinetobacter isolates. No evidence was found that the isolates grew on or derived nutrients from the asphalt itself or that they played an essential role in insect development. Regardless, any bacteria found in the oil fly larval gut are likely to exhibit pronounced solvent tolerance and may be a future source of industrially useful, solvent-tolerant enzymes. (+info)
(4/332) Effect of organic solvents on the yield of solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12.
Solvent-tolerant microorganisms are useful in biotransformations with whole cells in two-phase solvent-water systems. The results presented here describe the effects that organic solvents have on the growth of these organisms. The maximal growth rate of Pseudomonas putida S12, 0.8 h-1, was not affected by toluene in batch cultures, but in chemostat cultures the solvent decreased the maximal growth rate by nearly 50%. Toluene, ethylbenzene, propylbenzene, xylene, hexane, and cyclohexane reduced the biomass yield, and this effect depended on the concentration of the solvent in the bacterial membrane and not on its chemical structure. The dose response to solvents in terms of yield was linear up to an approximately 200 mM concentration of solvent in the bacterial membrane, both in the wild type and in a mutant lacking an active efflux system for toluene. Above this critical concentration the yield of the wild type remained constant at 0.2 g of protein/g of glucose with increasing concentrations of toluene. The reduction of the yield in the presence of solvents is due to a maintenance higher by a factor of three or four as well as to a decrease of the maximum growth yield by 33%. Therefore, energy-consuming adaptation processes as well as the uncoupling effect of the solvents reduce the yield of the tolerant cells. (+info)
(5/332) Enhancement of solubilization and biodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by the bioemulsifier alasan.
Alasan, a high-molecular-weight bioemulsifier complex of an anionic polysaccharide and proteins that is produced by Acinetobacter radioresistens KA53 (S. Navon-Venezia, Z. Zosim, A. Gottlieb, R. Legmann, S. Carmeli, E. Z. Ron, and E. Rosenberg, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:3240-3244, 1995), enhanced the aqueous solubility and biodegradation rates of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In the presence of 500 microg of alasan ml-1, the apparent aqueous solubilities of phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene were increased 6.6-, 25.7-, and 19.8-fold, respectively. Physicochemical characterization of the solubilization activity suggested that alasan solubilizes PAHs by a physical interaction, most likely of a hydrophobic nature, and that this interaction is slowly reversible. Moreover, the increase in apparent aqueous solubility of PAHs does not depend on the conformation of alasan and is not affected by the formation of multimolecular aggregates of alasan above its saturation concentration. The presence of alasan more than doubled the rate of [14C]fluoranthene mineralization and significantly increased the rate of [14C]phenanthrene mineralization by Sphingomonas paucimobilis EPA505. The results suggest that alasan-enhanced solubility of hydrophobic compounds has potential applications in bioremediation. (+info)
(6/332) Taxonomic characterization of denitrifying bacteria that degrade aromatic compounds and description of Azoarcus toluvorans sp. nov. and Azoarcus toluclasticus sp. nov.
A taxonomic characterization of twenty-one strains capable of degrading aromatic compounds under denitrifying conditions, isolated from ten different geographical locations, was performed on the basis of general morphological and physiological characteristics, cellular fatty acids, DNA base composition, small ribosomal (16S) subunit DNA sequences, whole-cell protein patterns and genomic DNA fragmentation analysis, in addition to DNA similarity estimations using hybridization methods. The collection of strains was subdivided into a number of different groups. A first group, consisting of four strains, could be assigned to the previously described species Azoarcus tolulyticus. A second group (five strains) had DNA which reannealed highly to that of strains of the first group, and it is considered to represent a genomovar of A. tolulyticus. The third and fourth groups, composed of a total of five strains, represent a new species of Azoarcus, Azoarcus toluclasticus (group 3) and a genomovar of this species (group 4), respectively. Finally, the fifth group, with two strains, corresponds to another new species of the genus Azoarcus, Azoarcus toluvorans. In addition to these five groups, the collection includes five individual strains perhaps representing as many different new species. The above classification is partially consistent with the results of approaches other than DNA-DNA hybridization (electrophoretic patterns of whole-cell proteins and of the fragments obtained after digestion of total DNA with infrequently cutting restriction enzymes). On the other hand, no correlation of these groupings was found in terms of the cellular fatty acid composition. It is also unfortunate that no simple sets of easily determinable phenotypic properties could be defined as being characteristic of each of the groups. (+info)
(7/332) Clostridium methoxybenzovorans sp. nov., a new aromatic o-demethylating homoacetogen from an olive mill wastewater treatment digester.
A strictly anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium (3.0-5.0 x 0.4-0.8 microns), designated strain SR3T (T = type strain), which stained Gram-positive and possessed a Gram-positive type cell wall was isolated from a methanogenic pilot-scale digester fed with olive mill wastewater (Sfax, Tunisia). It utilized a number of carbohydrates (glucose, fructose, sorbose, galactose, myo-inositol, sucrose, lactose, cellobiose), organic compounds (lactate, betaine, sarcosine, dimethylglycine, methanethiol, dimethylsulfide), alcohol (methanol) and all methoxylated aromatic compounds only in the presence of yeast extract (0.1%). The end products from carbohydrate fermentation were H2, CO2, formate, acetate and ethanol, that from lactate was methanol, those from methoxylated aromatics were acetate and butyrate, and that from betaine, sarcosine, dimethylglycine, methanethiol and dimethylsulfide was only acetate. Strain SR3T was non-motile, had a G+C content of 44 mol% and grew optimally at 37 degrees C and pH 7.4 on a glucose-containing medium. Phylogenetically, the closest relatives of strain SR3T were the non-methoxylated aromatic-degrading Clostridium xylanolyticum, Clostridium aerotolerans, Clostridium sphenoides and Clostridium celerecrescens (mean similarity of 98%). On the basis of the phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic characteristics of the isolate, it is proposed to designate strain SR3T as Clostridium methoxybenzovorans sp. nov. The type strain is SR3T (= DSM 12182T). (+info)
(8/332) The difference between the CB(1) and CB(2) cannabinoid receptors at position 5.46 is crucial for the selectivity of WIN55212-2 for CB(2).
It has been reported that WIN55212-2, a prototypic aminoalkylindole, has higher affinity for CB(2) than for CB(1). To explain the selectivity of WIN55212-2 for CB(2), molecular modeling studies were performed to probe the interacting sites between WIN55212-2 and cannabinoid receptors. In TMH5 the position 5.46 is a Phe in CB(2) versus a Val in CB(1). Docking of WIN55212-2 into the models of CB(1) and CB(2) predicts that F5.46 will result in a greater aromatic stacking of CB(2) with WIN55212-2. Using site-directed mutagenesis, this hypothesis was tested by exchanging the amino acids at position 5.46 between CB(1) and CB(2). Two mutations, including a Phe to Val mutation at the position 5.46 in CB(2) (CB2F5. 46V), and a corresponding Val to Phe mutation at the position 5.46 in CB(1) (CB(1)V5.46F), were made. The mutant receptors were transfected into 293 cells, and stable cell lines expressing similar numbers of receptors as wild-type receptors were chosen for additional ligand binding and cAMP accumulation studies. In ligand- binding assays, the CB(2)F5.46V mutation decreased the affinity of WIN55212-2 for CB(2) by 14-fold. In contrast, the CB(1)V5.46F mutation increased the affinity of WIN55212-2 for CB(1) by 12-fold. However, these mutations did not change the affinity of HU-210, CP-55940, and anandamide for CB(1) and CB(2). In cAMP accumulation assays, the changes in EC(50) values of WIN55212-2 were consistent with the changes in its binding affinity caused by the mutations. These results strongly support the hypothesis that the selectivity of WIN55212-2 for CB(2) over CB(1) is attributable to the change from Val in CB(1) at position 5.46 to Phe in CB(2). (+info)