(25/106) Exposure misclassification of household pesticides and risk perception and behaviour.

The aim of this paper was to compare self-reported household pesticide use or non-use in a questionnaire with reported household pesticide use from an in-depth interview, in order to elucidate any differences, and to study any differential reporting of pesticides. In the in-depth interview we asked for pesticide use, behaviour adopted while using pesticides and risk perceptions as possible factors to explain the reporting of pesticide use. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) was used as the sampling frame. Eight hundred and thirty one parents filled out and returned the questionnaire. A random sample of 53 users and 94 non-users took part in the interview. Almost 90% of the 94 who did not report the use of pesticides in the questionnaire reported the use of pesticides during the interview. However, those who reported pesticide use in the questionnaire were more likely to report home and garden pesticide use (P < 0.05) in the interview. The parents who reported pesticide use in the questionnaire had a tendency to perceive a lower risk and higher benefit from pesticide use, and tended to be less risk averse when compared with the groups of parents who reported no pesticide use. They bought the pesticides because 'they looked safe', while those who did not report pesticide use bought them because they 'used them before'. The latter were also more likely to state that they did not understand everything on the label and that they thought that it did not provide all the information needed. They were also less likely to feel that they knew what they are doing when using pesticides and felt that pesticide use is relatively dangerous compared with other hazards. In conclusion, pesticide use is underreported in questionnaires, and behaviour and risk perception may affect the reporting.  (+info)

(26/106) Antibacterial cleaning products and drug resistance.

We examined whether household use of antibacterial cleaning and hygiene products is an emerging risk factor for carriage of antimicrobial drug-resistant bacteria on hands of household members. Households (N = 224) were randomized to use of antibacterial or nonantibacterial cleaning and hygiene products for 1 year. Logistic regression was used to assess the influence of antibacterial product use in homes. Antibacterial product use did not lead to a significant increase in antimicrobial drug resistance after 1 year (odds ratio 1.33, 95% confidence interval 0.74-2.41), nor did it have an effect on bacterial susceptibility to triclosan. However, more extensive and longer term use of triclosan might provide a suitable environment for emergence of resistant species. Further research on this issue is needed.  (+info)

(27/106) What do cancer registry and household expenditure data in Japan tell us about variation in tumour burden ?

Data from the total of six Japanese Cancer Registries presently reporting to Cancer Incidence in Five Continents demonstrate marked variation in relative prevalence of cancers at particular sites, despite the genetic homogeneity of the Japanese population. Thus either major differences in registry procedures or local environment must be playing an important role and since the variation is clearly changing with time, the former must be considered likely. Over the last 25 year period, incidence rates for the esophagus have been generally increasing in Japan, except in Miyagi where they have been persistently high. Stomach cancer rates are on the decrease, although the trend is not so clear in Yamagata and Hiroshima, while colon and rectal cancers have both demonstrated consistent increment throughout the period surveyed, with a remarkable correlation between the two sites evident on cross-registry comparisons. Continued increases have also been apparent in lung, kidney, urinary bladder and prostate cancers in males and in breast, endometrium and thyroid neoplasms in females. Cervical cancer, in contrast, is decreasing, although a plateau may now have been reached in Miyagi. In the hepatopancreatic axis, patterns have generally showed elevation followed by a recent reduction, although without correlations among liver, gallbladder and pancreas rates at the cross-registry level. Common lifestyle factors may to some extent underly the increases seen in colon, breast, urinary bladder and thyroid incidence rates, given the significant relations apparent for these in the latest data across registries. Whether analysis of variation in dietary intake and exposure to other risk factors, for example using data for household expenditure, may provide clues to explaining the variation apparent across Japan is a question warranting further consideration. If so an expanded role for the cancer registry could well be envisaged.  (+info)

(28/106) Household dyeing plants and traditional uses in some areas of Italy.

BACKGROUND: This paper reports the results of investigations carried out from 1977 to today in some areas of Italy (Latium, Marche, Abruzzo and to a limited extent in Sardinia) concerning traditional uses of dyeing plants in the household. RESULTS: Twenty-nine plants are described, distributed in 23 families, and for each species the vernacular name, the way it is used and the locations of traditional use are given. Other plants used in the past in the above-mentioned regions are recalled. CONCLUSION: Among the new findings--not mentioned in previous literature, see references--is Muscari neglectum (purplish). Nowadays atavistic dye uses still persist only in Nule (Sardinia).  (+info)

(29/106) Brief report: respiratory illness associated with boot sealant products--five states, 2005-2006.

During February 2005-February 2006, six regional poison control centers in five states were consulted regarding 172 human and 19 animal (i.e., pet cat or dog) exposures to shoe or boot leather protection or sealant products resulting in respiratory illness. One product was associated with 126 cases of human illness and another product with seven cases. An ongoing investigation, begun in December 2005, is being conducted by the poison centers. The majority of cases occurred in Michigan, where poison control centers are collaborating with the Michigan Department of Community Health to further document exposures and adverse health effects from the products. Results of the investigation of the 150 cases reported during 2005 underscore the continuing need to assess the magnitude of the problem, evaluate the toxic etiology of the products involved, and determine how to prevent further cases of illness resulting from use of the products.  (+info)

(30/106) Child and maternal household chemical exposure and the risk of acute leukemia in children with Down's syndrome: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

Compared with the general pediatric population, children with Down's syndrome have a much higher risk of acute leukemia. This case-control study was designed to explore potential risk factors for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia in children with Down's syndrome living in the United States or Canada. Mothers of 158 children with Down's syndrome and acute leukemia (97 acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 61 acute myeloid leukemia) diagnosed between January 1997 and October 2002 and mothers of 173 children with Down's syndrome but without leukemia were interviewed by telephone. Positive associations were found between acute lymphoblastic leukemia and maternal exposure to professional pest exterminations (odds ratio = 2.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.13, 4.49), to any pesticide (odds ratio = 2.18, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 4.39), and to any chemical (odds ratio = 2.72, 95% confidence interval: 1.17, 6.35). Most of the associations with acute myeloid leukemia were nonsignificant, and odds ratios were generally near or below 1.0. This exploratory study suggests that household chemical exposure may play a role in the development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children with Down's syndrome.  (+info)

(31/106) Preconception brief: occupational/environmental exposures.

In the last decade, more than half of U.S. children were born to working mothers and 65% of working men and women were of reproductive age. In 2004 more than 28 million women age 18-44 were employed full time. This implies the need for clinicians to possess an awareness about the impact of work on the health of their patients and their future offspring. Most chemicals in the workplace have not been evaluated for reproductive toxicity, and where exposure limits do exist, they were generally not designed to mitigate reproductive risk. Therefore, many toxicants with unambiguous reproductive and developmental effects are still in regular commercial or therapeutic use and thus present exposure potential to workers. Examples of these include heavy metals, (lead, cadmium), organic solvents (glycol ethers, percholoroethylene), pesticides and herbicides (ethylene dibromide) and sterilants, anesthetic gases and anti-cancer drugs used in healthcare. Surprisingly, many of these reproductive toxicants are well represented in traditional employment sectors of women, such as healthcare and cosmetology. Environmental exposures also figure prominently in evaluating a woman's health risk and that to a pregnancy. Food and water quality and pesticide and solvent usage are increasingly topics raised by women and men contemplating pregnancy. The microenvironment of a woman, such as her choices of hobbies and leisure time activities also come into play. Caregivers must be aware of their patients' potential environmental and workplace exposures and weigh any risk of exposure in the context of the time-dependent window of reproductive susceptibility. This will allow informed decision-making about the need for changes in behavior, diet, hobbies or the need for added protections on the job or alternative duty assignment. Examples of such environmental and occupational history elements will be presented together with counseling strategies for the clinician.  (+info)

(32/106) A rare complication of chlorine gas inhalation: pneumomediastinum.

Chlorine gas is a potent pulmonary irritant that causes acute damage in both the upper and lower respiratory tract.  (+info)