(17/50) Molecular properties of membrane-bound FAD-containing D-sorbitol dehydrogenase from thermotolerant Gluconobacter frateurii isolated from Thailand.
There are two types of membrane-bound D-sorbitol dehydrogenase (SLDH) reported: PQQ-SLDH, having pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), and FAD-SLDH, containing FAD and heme c as the prosthetic groups. FAD-SLDH was purified and characterized from the PQQ-SLDH mutant strain of a thermotolerant Gluconobacter frateurii, having molecular mass of 61.5 kDa, 52 kDa, and 22 kDa. The enzyme properties were quite similar to those of the enzyme from mesophilic G. oxydans IFO 3254. This enzyme was shown to be inducible by D-sorbitol, but not PQQ-SLDH. The oxidation product of FAD-SLDH from D-sorbitol was identified as L-sorbose. The cloned gene of FAD-SLDH had three open reading frames (sldSLC) corresponding to the small, the large, and cytochrome c subunits of FAD-SLDH respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences showed high identity to those from G. oxydans IFO 3254: SldL showed to other FAD-enzymes, and SldC having three heme c binding motives to cytochrome c subunits of other membrane-bound dehydrogenases. (+info)
(18/50) Biocontrol of the food-borne pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Poona on fresh-cut apples with naturally occurring bacterial and yeast antagonists.
Fresh-cut apples contaminated with either Listeria monocytogenes or Salmonella enterica serovar Poona, using strains implicated in outbreaks, were treated with one of 17 antagonists originally selected for their ability to inhibit fungal postharvest decay on fruit. While most of the antagonists increased the growth of the food-borne pathogens, four of them, including Gluconobacter asaii (T1-D1), a Candida sp. (T4-E4), Discosphaerina fagi (ST1-C9), and Metschnikowia pulcherrima (T1-E2), proved effective in preventing the growth or survival of food-borne human pathogens on fresh-cut apple tissue. The contaminated apple tissue plugs were stored for up to 7 days at two different temperatures. The four antagonists survived or grew on the apple tissue at 10 or 25 degrees C. These four antagonists reduced the Listeria monocytogenes populations and except for the Candida sp. (T4-E4), also reduced the S. enterica serovar Poona populations. The reduction was higher at 25 degrees C than at 10 degrees C, and the growth of the antagonists, as well as pathogens, increased at the higher temperature. (+info)
(19/50) Structure-guided engineering of xylitol dehydrogenase cosubstrate specificity.
Xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) is one of several enzymes responsible for assimilating xylose into eukaryotic metabolism and is useful for fermentation of xylose contained in agricultural byproducts to produce ethanol. For efficient xylose utilization at high flux rates, cosubstrates should be recycled between the NAD+-specific XDH and the NADPH-preferring xylose reductase, another enzyme in the pathway. To understand and alter the cosubstrate specificity of XDH, we determined the crystal structure of the Gluconobacter oxydans holoenzyme to 1.9 angstroms resolution. The structure reveals that NAD+ specificity is largely conferred by Asp38, which interacts with the hydroxyls of the adenosine ribose. Met39 stacked under the purine ring and was also located near the 2' hydroxyl. Based on the location of these residues and on sequence alignments with related enzymes of various cosubstrate specificities, we constructed a double mutant (D38S/M39R) that was able to exclusively use NADP+, with no loss of activity. (+info)
(20/50) Heterogeneity of strains assigned to Gluconobacter frateurii Mason and Claus 1989 based on restriction analysis of 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer regions.
Twenty-three strains, which were assigned to Gluconobacter frateurii and maintained at Culture Collection NBRC, were re-identified at the species level on the basis of restriction analysis of 16S-23S rDNA ITS regions by digestion with six restriction endonucleases: Bsp1286I, MboII, AvaII, TaqI, BsoBI, and BstNI. The strains examined were divided into six groups, Group III-1, Group III-2, Group III-3, Group III-4, Group III-5, and Group IV. Group III-1 and Group III-4 respectively were divided into two subgroups, Subgroup III-1a, Subgroup III-1b and Subgroup III-4a, Subgroup III-4b. Gluconobacter frateurii NBRC 3264(T) was included in Group III-2, along with strains NBRC 3265 and NBRC 3270, and G. thailandicus BCC 14116(T) was included in Group III-3, along with strains NBRC 3254, NBRC 3256, NBRC 3258, NBRC 3255, and NBRC 3257. These groupings were supported by a phylogenetic tree based on 16S-23S rDNA ITS sequences. Strains of group III-2 and Group IV were unequivocally re-identified as G. frateurii, but strains of Group III-3, Group III-4, and Group III-5 were not necessarily re-identified as G. frateurii. The results obtained indicate that the 23 strains have a taxonomically heterogeneous nature, and they are referred to as the G. frateurii complex. (+info)
(21/50) Intrageneric structure of the genus Gluconobacter analyzed by the 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer sequences.
Forty-nine strains belonging to the genus Gluconobacter were re-examined with respect to their species identification based on the sequences of the 16S rDNA and 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS). A phylogenetic tree constructed from the 16S rDNA sequences indicated the presence of five clusters corresponding, respectively, to the major five species of the genus Gluconobacter, namely G. albidus, G. cerinus, G. frateurii, G. oxydans (type species), and G. thailandicus. The type strain of G. asaii, NBRC 3276T (T=type strain) was included in the G. cerinus cluster, which is consistent with the report that G. asaii is a junior subjective synonym of G. cerinus. Existence of the G. albidus, G. cerinus, G. frateurii, G. oxydans, and G. thailandicus clusters was also recognized by the ITS sequence analysis. Both sequence analyses revealed that the G. cerinus and G. frateurii clusters were heterogeneous. The G. cerinus cluster comprised three strains of G. cerinus and one strain of G. frateurii, while the G. frateurii cluster included ten strains of G. frateurii, three of G. cerinus, and eleven of G. oxydans. These results suggest that phenotypic differences among Gluconobacter species are ambiguous and the species definition must be re-evaluated. The 16S rDNA and ITS sequences determined in this study are valuable for the identification and phylogenetic analysis of Gluconobacter species. (+info)
(22/50) L-sorbose reductase and its transcriptional regulator involved in L-sorbose utilization of Gluconobacter frateurii.
Upstream of the gene for flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent D-sorbitol dehydrogenase (SLDH), sldSLC, a putative transcriptional regulator was found in Gluconobacter frateurii THD32 (NBRC 101656). In this study, the whole sboR gene and the adjacent gene, sboA, were cloned and analyzed. sboR mutation did not affect FAD-SLDH activity in the membrane fractions. The SboA enzyme expressed and purified from an Escherichia coli transformant showed NADPH-dependent L-sorbose reductase (NADPH-SR) activity, and the enzyme was different from the NADPH-SR previously reported for Gluconobacter suboxydans IFO 3291 in molecular size and amino acid sequence. A mutant defective in sboA showed significantly reduced growth on L-sorbose, indicating that the SboA enzyme is required for efficient growth on L-sorbose. The sboR mutant grew on L-sorbose even better than the wild-type strain did, and higher NADPH-SR activity was detected in cytoplasm fractions. Reverse transcription-PCR experiments indicated that sboRA comprises an operon. These data suggest that sboR is involved in the repression of sboA, but not in the induction of sldSLC, on D-sorbitol and that another activator is required for the induction of these genes by D-sorbitol or L-sorbose. (+info)
(23/50) Identification of Thai isolates assigned to the genus Gluconobacter based on 16S-23S rDNA ITS restriction analysis.
Forty-four Thai isolates phenotypically assigned to the genus Gluconobacter were examined for 16S-23S rDNA ITS restriction analysis by MboII and SduI (=Bsp1286I) digestions. The Thai isolates tested were divided into seven groups: Group I for fourteen isolates, Group IX for one isolate, Group X for two isolates, Group V-2 for four isolates, Group XI for three isolates, Group IV for one isolate, and Group III for nineteen isolates. There were no isolates of either Group II or Group V-1 that were identified as G. cerinus. The isolates of Group III, Group IV, and Group XI were subjected to an additional 16S-23S rDNA ITS restriction analysis by AvaII, TaqI, BsoBI, and BstNI digestions. The isolates of Group III were divided into three groups and two subgroups: Group III-2 for five isolates, Group III-6 for two isolates, and Group III-4, which was divided into two subgroups, Subgroup III-4a for four isolates and Subgroup III-4b for eight isolates. The fourteen isolates of Group I were identified as G. oxydans, and the two isolates of Group X were temporarily identified as G. oxydans. The five isolates of Group III-2 and the one isolate of Group IV were identified as G. frateurii. The remaining twenty-two isolates of Group V-2, Group III-4, Group III-6, Group IX, and Group XI were not identified but are candidates for several new species. (+info)
(24/50) Membrane-bound, 2-keto-D-gluconate-yielding D-gluconate dehydrogenase from "Gluconobacter dioxyacetonicus" IFO 3271: molecular properties and gene disruption.
Most Gluconobacter species produce and accumulate 2-keto-d-gluconate (2KGA) and 5KGA simultaneously from d-glucose via GA in culture medium. 2KGA is produced by membrane-bound flavin adenine dinucleotide-containing GA 2-dehydrogenase (FAD-GADH). FAD-GADH was purified from "Gluconobacter dioxyacetonicus" IFO 3271, and N-terminal sequences of the three subunits were analyzed. PCR primers were designed from the N-terminal sequences, and part of the FAD-GADH genes was cloned as a PCR product. Using this PCR product, gene fragments containing whole FAD-GADH genes were obtained, and finally the nucleotide sequence of 9,696 bp was determined. The cloned sequence had three open reading frames (ORFs), gndS, gndL, and gndC, corresponding to small, large, and cytochrome c subunits of FAD-GADH, respectively. Seven other ORFs were also found, one of which showed identity to glucono-delta-lactonase, which might be involved directly in 2KGA production. Three mutant strains defective in either gndL or sldA (the gene responsible for 5KGA production) or both were constructed. Ferricyanide-reductase activity with GA in the membrane fraction of the gndL-defective strain decreased by about 60% of that of the wild-type strain, while in the sldA-defective strain, activity with GA did not decrease and activities with glycerol, d-arabitol, and d-sorbitol disappeared. Unexpectedly, the strain defective in both gndL and sldA (double mutant) still showed activity with GA. Moreover, 2KGA production was still observed in gndL and double mutant strains. 5KGA production was not observed at all in sldA and double mutant strains. Thus, it seems that "G. dioxyacetonicus" IFO 3271 has another membrane-bound enzyme that reacts with GA, producing 2KGA. (+info)