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(1/4169) A method for estimating nucleotide diversity from AFLP data.

A method for estimating the nucleotide diversity from AFLP data is developed by using the relationship between the number of nucleotide changes and the proportion of shared bands. The estimation equation is based on the assumption that GC-content is 0.5. Computer simulations, however, show that this method gives a reasonably accurate estimate even when GC-content deviates from 0.5, as long as the number of nucleotide changes per site (nucleotide diversity) is small. As an example, the nucleotide diversity of the wild yam, Dioscorea tokoro, was estimated. The estimated nucleotide diversity is 0.0055, which is larger than estimations from nucleotide sequence data for Adh and Pgi.  (+info)

(2/4169) Integration of banana streak badnavirus into the Musa genome: molecular and cytogenetic evidence.

Breeding and tissue culture of certain cultivars of bananas (Musa) have led to high levels of banana streak badnavirus (BSV) infection in progeny from symptomless parents. BSV DNA hybridized to genomic DNA of one such parent, Obino l'Ewai, suggesting integration of viral sequences. Sequencing of clones of Obino l'Ewai genomic DNA revealed an interface between BSV and Musa sequences and a complex BSV integrant. In situ hybridization revealed two different BSV sequence locations in Obino l'Ewai chromosomes and a complex arrangement of BSV and Musa sequences was shown by probing stretched DNA fibers. This is the first report of integrated sequences that possibly lead to a plant pararetrovirus episomal infection by a mechanism differing markedly from animal retroviral systems.  (+info)

(3/4169) Evidence that badnavirus infection in Musa can originate from integrated pararetroviral sequences.

When some virus- and disease-free Musa spp. (banana and plantain) are propagated by tissue culture, the resulting plants develop infections with banana streak badnavirus (BSV), a pararetrovirus. In sharp contrast to the virion DNA recovered from natural infections, the virion DNA from tissue culture-associated infections of different Musa spp. was highly similar if not identical. Although BSV does not employ integration during the infection cycle, BSV DNA was found to be integrated into the Musa genome. While one integration consisted of a partial BSV genome, a second contained more than one complete genome that was almost identical to BSV recovered from tissue culture-derived plants. The arrangement of this integrated BSV DNA suggests that it can yield an infectious episomal genome via homologous recombination. This report documents the first instance of integrated DNA of a nonintegrating virus giving rise to an episomal viral infection and identifies tissue culture as a possible trigger for the infection, raising the question of whether similar activatable viral sequences exist in the genomes of other plants and animals.  (+info)

(4/4169) Evidence for an ancient chromosomal duplication in Arabidopsis thaliana by sequencing and analyzing a 400-kb contig at the APETALA2 locus on chromosome 4.

As part of the European Scientists Sequencing Arabidopsis program, a contiguous region (396607 bp) located on chromosome 4 around the APETALA2 gene was sequenced. Analysis of the sequence and comparison to public databases predicts 103 genes in this area, which represents a gene density of one gene per 3.85 kb. Almost half of the genes show no significant homology to known database entries. In addition, the first 45 kb of the contig, which covers 11 genes, is similar to a region on chromosome 2, as far as coding sequences are concerned. This observation indicates that ancient duplications of large pieces of DNA have occurred in Arabidopsis.  (+info)

(5/4169) atSRp30, one of two SF2/ASF-like proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana, regulates splicing of specific plant genes.

SR proteins are nuclear phosphoproteins with a characteristic Ser/Arg-rich domain and one or two RNA recognition motifs. They are highly conserved in animals and plants and play important roles in spliceosome assembly and alternative splicing regulation. We have now isolated and partially sequenced a plant protein, which crossreacts with antibodies to human SR proteins. The sequence of the corresponding cDNA and genomic clones from Arabidopsis revealed a protein, atSRp30, with strong similarity to the human SR protein SF2/ASF and to atSRp34/SR1, a previously identified SR protein, indicating that plants possess two SF2/ASF-like proteins. atSRp30 expresses alternatively spliced mRNA isoforms that are expressed differentially in various organs and during development. Overexpression of atSRp30 via a strong constitutive promoter resulted in changes in alternative splicing of several endogenous plant genes, including atSRp30 itself. Interestingly, atSRp30 overexpression resulted in a pronounced down-regulation of endogenous mRNA encoding full-length atSRp34/SR1 protein. Transgenic plants overexpressing atSRp30 showed morphological and developmental changes affecting mostly developmental phase transitions. atSRp30- and atSRp34/SR1-promoter-GUS constructs exhibited complementary expression patterns during early seedling development and root formation, with overlapping expression in floral tissues. The results of the structural and expression analyses of both genes suggest that atSRp34/SR1 acts as a general splicing factor, whereas atSRp30 functions as a specific splicing modulator.  (+info)

(6/4169) Stage- and tissue-specific expression of ethylene receptor homolog genes during fruit development in muskmelon.

We isolated two muskmelon (Cucumis melo) cDNA homologs of the Arabidopsis ethylene receptor genes ETR1 and ERS1 and designated them Cm-ETR1 (C. melo ETR1; accession no. AF054806) and Cm-ERS1 (C. melo ERS1; accession no. AF037368), respectively. Northern analysis revealed that the level of Cm-ERS1 mRNA in the pericarp increased in parallel with the increase in fruit size and then markedly decreased at the end of enlargement. In fully enlarged fruit the level of Cm-ERS1 mRNA was low in all tissues, whereas that of Cm-ETR1 mRNA was very high in the seeds and placenta. During ripening Cm-ERS1 mRNA increased slightly in the pericarp of fruit before the marked increase of Cm-ETR1 mRNA paralleled climacteric ethylene production. These results indicate that both Cm-ETR1 and Cm-ERS1 play specific roles not only in ripening but also in the early development of melon fruit and that they have distinct roles in particular fruit tissues at particular developmental stages.  (+info)

(7/4169) Elimination and rearrangement of parental rDNA in the allotetraploid Nicotiana tabacum.

Origin and rearrangement of ribosomal DNA repeats in natural allotetraploid Nicotiana tabacum are described. Comparative sequence analysis of the intergenic spacer (IGS) regions of Nicotiana tomentosiformis (the paternal diploid progenitor) and Nicotiana sylvestris (the maternal diploid progenitor) showed species-specific molecular features. These markers allowed us to trace the molecular evolution of parental rDNA in the allopolyploid genome of N. tabacum; at least the majority of tobacco rDNA repeats originated from N. tomentosiformis, which endured reconstruction of subrepeated regions in the IGS. We infer that after hybridization of the parental diploid species, rDNA with a longer IGS, donated by N. tomentosiformis, dominated over the rDNA with a shorter IGS from N. sylvestris; the latter was then eliminated from the allopolyploid genome. Thus, repeated sequences in allopolyploid genomes are targets for molecular rearrangement, demonstrating the dynamic nature of allopolyploid genomes.  (+info)

(8/4169) Incongruence in the diploid B-genome species complex of Glycine (Leguminosae) revisited: histone H3-D alleles versus chloroplast haplotypes.

Variation at the single-copy nuclear locus histone H3-D was surveyed in the diploid B-genome group of Glycine subgenus Glycine (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae), which comprises three named Australian species and a number of distinct but as yet not formally recognized taxa. A total of 23 alleles was identified in the 44 accessions surveyed. Only one individual was clearly heterozygous, which is not surprising given the largely autogamous breeding system of subgenus Glycine. Alleles differed by as many as 19 nucleotide substitutions, nearly all in the three introns; length variation was minimal. Phylogenetic analysis identified two shortest allele trees with very little homoplasy, suggesting that recombination has been rare. Both topological and data set incongruence were statistically significant between histone H3-D allele trees and trees inferred from chloroplast DNA haplotypes previously described from these same accessions. Whereas the distribution of H3-D alleles agrees well with morphologically based taxonomic groupings, chloroplast DNA haplotype polymorphisms transgress species boundaries, suggesting that the chloroplast genome is not tracking taxic relationships. Divergences among chloroplast DNA haplotypes involved in such transgressive patterns appear to be more recent than speciation events, suggesting hybridization rather than lineage sorting.  (+info)