(57/861) Foodborne outbreak of Group A rotavirus gastroenteritis among college students--District of Columbia, March-April 2000.
On March 31, student health services at a university in the District of Columbia (DC) notified the DC health department that an increased number of students had become ill with acute gastroenteritis beginning March 29. Some ill students reported eating tuna or chicken salad sandwiches from dining hall A on campus. On March 31, the DC health department initiated an outbreak investigation. This report summarizes results of the investigation, which indicated that group A rotavirus transmitted by food was the cause of the outbreak. (+info)
(58/861) Detection of thermophilic Campylobacter from sparrows by multiplex PCR: the role of sparrows as a source of contamination of broilers with Campylobacter.
The best combination of primers and the annealing temperature of multiplex PCR for Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari were examined. The multiplex PCR was able to detect type strains of the three species. All results of identification of wild strains (30 strains of C. jejuni, 20 strains of C. coli, and 4 strains of C. lari) by the multiplex PCR coincided with those of the conventional biochemical identification tests, suggesting that the multiplex PCR can simultaneously differentiate C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari from wild strains of campylobacters easily and rapidly. Campylobacters were detected from sparrow feces by the multiplex PCR and antimicrobial sensitivities of the strains were determined to discuss the role of sparrows in contamination of broilers with C. jejuni. Three out of 13 strains of C. jejuni isolated from sparrow feces showed quinolone resistance. From the frequent use of quinolones for treatment of industrial animals like chickens, pigs, and cows, the three strains of quinolone-resistant C. jejuni in sparrows must have been originated from those industrial animals. Sparrows that have quinolone-resistant C. jejuni were considered to have contacted with industrial animals or thier feed. It may be presumed, on the contrary, that C. jejuni in sparrows could be a potential source of contamination of broilers. (+info)
(59/861) Diagnosis and management of foodborne illnesses: a primer for physicians.
This primer is directed to primary care physicians, who are more likely to see the index case of a potential food-related disease outbreak. It is a teaching tool to update primary care physicians about foodborne illness and remind them of their important role in recognizing suspicious symptoms, disease clusters, and etiologic agents, and reporting cases of foodborne illness to public health authorities. (+info)
(60/861) Genotyping of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens fecal isolates associated with antibiotic-associated diarrhea and food poisoning in North America.
Clostridium perfringens type A isolates producing enterotoxin (CPE) are an important cause of food poisoning and non-food-borne human gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, including antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Recent studies suggest that C. perfringens type A food poisoning is caused by C. perfringens isolates carrying a chromosomal cpe gene, while CPE-associated non-food-borne GI diseases, such as AAD, are caused by plasmid cpe isolates. Those putative relationships, obtained predominantly with European isolates, were tested in the current study by examining 34 cpe-positive, C. perfringens fecal isolates from North American cases of food poisoning or AAD. These North American disease isolates were all classified as type A using a multiplex PCR assay. Furthermore, restriction fragment length polymorphism and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotyping analyses showed the North American AAD isolates included in this collection all have a plasmid cpe gene, but the North American food poisoning isolates all carry a chromosomal cpe gene. Western blotting demonstrated CPE expression by nearly all of these disease isolates, confirming their virulence potential. These findings with North American isolates provide important new evidence that, regardless of geographic origin or date of isolation, plasmid cpe isolates cause most CPE-associated AAD cases and chromosomal cpe isolates cause most C. perfringens type A food poisoning cases. These findings hold importance for the development of assays for distinguishing cases of CPE-associated food-borne and non-food-borne human GI illnesses and also identify potential epidemiologic tools for determining the reservoirs for these illnesses. (+info)
(61/861) Enterotoxin plasmid from Clostridium perfringens is conjugative.
Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin is the major virulence factor involved in the pathogenesis of C. perfringens type A food poisoning and several non-food-borne human gastrointestinal illnesses. The enterotoxin gene, cpe, is located on the chromosome of food-poisoning isolates but is found on a large plasmid in non-food-borne gastrointestinal disease isolates and in veterinary isolates. To evaluate whether the cpe plasmid encodes its own conjugative transfer, a C. perfringens strain carrying pMRS4969, a plasmid in which a 0.4-kb segment internal to the cpe gene had been replaced by the chloramphenicol resistance gene catP, was used as a donor in matings with several cpe-negative C. perfringens isolates. Chloramphenicol resistance was transferred at frequencies ranging from 2.0 x 10(-2) to 4.6 x 10(-4) transconjugants per donor cell. The transconjugants were characterized by PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and Southern hybridization analyses. The results demonstrated that the entire pMRS4969 plasmid had been transferred to the recipient strain. Plasmid transfer required cell-to-cell contact and was DNase resistant, indicating that transfer occurred by a conjugation mechanism. In addition, several fragments of the prototype C. perfringens tetracycline resistance plasmid, pCW3, hybridized with pMRS4969, suggesting that pCW3 shares some similarity to pMRS4969. The clinical significance of these findings is that if conjugative transfer of the cpe plasmid occurred in vivo, it would have the potential to convert cpe-negative C. perfringens strains in normal intestinal flora into strains capable of causing gastrointestinal disease. (+info)
(62/861) Preliminary FoodNet data on the incidence of foodborne illnesses--selected sites, United States, 2000.
Each year in the United States, an estimated 76 million persons contract foodborne illnesses. CDC's Emerging Infections Program Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) collects data about nine foodborne diseases in eight U.S. sites to quantify and monitor foodborne illnesses. This report describes preliminary surveillance data for 2000 and compares them with 1996-1999 data. The data indicate the relative frequency of diagnosed infections, demonstrate substantial regional variation, and suggest trends in incidence. FoodNet provides data for monitoring foodborne illnesses and interventions designed to reduce them. (+info)
(63/861) Structures of azaspiracid analogs, azaspiracid-4 and azaspiracid-5, causative toxins of azaspiracid poisoning in Europe.
Two new analogs of azaspiracid, azaspiracid-4 and azaspiracid-5, isolated from the mussel Mytilus edulis, involved in a newly emerged shellfish poisoning in Europe were determined to be 3-hydroxy-22-demethylazaspiracid and 23-hydroxy-22-demethylazaspiracid, respectively. (+info)
(64/861) An assessment of the ability of routine restaurant inspections to predict food-borne outbreaks in Miami-Dade County, Florida.
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the usefulness of restaurant inspections in predicting food-borne outbreaks in Miami-Dade County, Fla. METHODS: Inspection reports of restaurants with outbreaks in 1995 (cases; n = 51) were compared with those of randomly selected restaurants that had no reported outbreaks (controls; n = 76). RESULTS: Cases and controls did not differ by overall inspection outcome or mean number of critical violations. Only 1 critical violation--evidence of vermin--was associated with outbreaks (odds ratio = 3.3; 95% confidence interval = 1.1, 13.1). CONCLUSIONS: Results of restaurant inspections in Miami-Dade County did not predict outbreaks. If these findings are representative of the situation in other jurisdictions, inspection practices may need to be updated. (+info)