(33/861) An outbreak of febrile gastroenteritis associated with corn contaminated by Listeria monocytogenes.
BACKGROUND: On May 21, 1997, numerous cases of febrile gastrointestinal illness were reported among the students and staff of two primary schools in northern Italy, all of whom had eaten at cafeterias served by the same caterer. METHODS: We interviewed people who ate at the cafeterias about symptoms and foods consumed on May 20. There were no samples of foods left at the cafeterias, but we tested routine samples taken on May 20 by the caterer and environmental specimens at the catering plant. The hospitalized patients were tested for common enteropathogens and toxins. RESULTS: Of the 2189 persons interviewed (82 percent of those exposed), 1566 (72 percent) reported symptoms; of these, 292 (19 percent) were hospitalized. Among samples obtained from hospitalized patients, all but two of the stool specimens and all blood specimens were negative for common enteropathogens. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from one blood specimen and from 123 of the 141 stool specimens. Consumption of a cold salad of corn and tuna was associated with the development of symptoms (relative risk, 6.19; 95 percent confidence interval, 4.81 to 7.98; P<0.001). L. monocytogenes was isolated from the caterer's sample of the salad and from environmental specimens collected from the catering plant. All listeria isolates were serotype 4b and were found to be identical on DNA analysis. Experimental contamination of sterile samples of the implicated foods showed that L. monocytogenes grew on corn when kept for at least 10 hours at 25 degrees C. CONCLUSIONS: Food-borne infection with L. monocytogenes can cause febrile illness with gastroenteritis in immunocompetent persons. (+info)
(34/861) Enteritis necroticans (pigbel) in a diabetic child.
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Enteritis necroticans (pigbel), an often fatal illness characterized by hemorrhagic, inflammatory, or ischemic necrosis of the jejunum, occurs in developing countries but is rare in developed countries, where its occurrence is confined to adults with chronic illnesses. The causative organism of enteritis necroticans is Clostridium perfringens type C, an anaerobic gram-positive bacillus. In December 1998, enteritis necroticans developed in a 12-year-old boy with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus after he consumed pig intestines (chitterlings). He presented with hematemesis, abdominal distention, and severe diabetic ketoacidosis with hypotension. At laparotomy, extensive jejunal necrosis required bowel resection, jejunostomy, and ileostomy. Samples were obtained for histopathological examination. Polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay was performed on paraffin-embedded bowel tissue with primers specific for the cpa and cpb genes, which code for the alpha and beta toxins produced by C. perfringens. RESULTS: Histologic examination of resected bowel tissue showed extensive mucosal necrosis, the formation of pseudomembrane, pneumatosis, and areas of epithelial regeneration that alternated with necrotic segments--findings consistent with a diagnosis of enteritis necroticans. Gram's staining showed large gram-positive bacilli whose features were consistent with those of clostridium species. Through PCR amplification, we detected products of the cpa and cpb genes, which indicated the presence of C. perfringens type C. Assay of ileal tissue obtained during surgery to restore the continuity of the patient's bowel was negative for C. perfringens. CONCLUSIONS: The preparation or consumption of chitterlings by diabetic patients and other chronically ill persons can result in potentially life-threatening infectious complications. (+info)
(35/861) Surveillance for foodborne-disease outbreaks--United States, 1993-1997.
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1973, CDC has maintained a collaborative surveillance program for collection and periodic reporting of data on the occurrence and causes of foodborne-disease outbreaks (FBDOs) in the United States. REPORTING PERIOD COVERED: This summary reviews data from January 1993 through December 1997. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: The Foodborne-Disease Outbreak Surveillance System reviews data concerning FBDOs, defined as the occurrence of two or more cases of a similar illness resulting from the ingestion of a common food. State and local public health departments have primary responsibility for identifying and investigating FBDOs. State, local, and territorial health departments use a standard form to report these outbreaks to CDC. RESULTS: During 1993-1997, a total of 2,751 outbreaks of foodborne disease were reported (489 in 1993, 653 in 1994, 628 in 1995, 477 in 1996, and 504 in 1997). These outbreaks caused a reported 86,058 persons to become ill. Among outbreaks for which the etiology was determined, bacterial pathogens caused the largest percentage of outbreaks (75%) and the largest percentage of cases (86%). Salmonella serotype Enteritidis accounted for the largest number of outbreaks, cases, and deaths; most of these outbreaks were attributed to eating eggs. Chemical agents caused 17% of outbreaks and 1% of cases; viruses, 6% of outbreaks and 8% of cases; and parasites, 2% of outbreaks and 5% of cases. INTERPRETATION: The annual number of FBDOs reported to CDC did not change substantially during this period or from previous years. During this reporting period, S. Enteritidis continued to be a major cause of illness and death. In addition, multistate outbreaks caused by contaminated produce and outbreaks caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7 remained prominent. ACTIONS TAKEN: Current methods to detect FBDOs are improving, and several changes to improve the ease and timeliness of reporting FBDO data are occurring (e.g., a revised form to simplify FBDO reporting by state health departments and electronic reporting methods). State and local health departments continue to investigate and report FBDOs as part of efforts to better understand and define the epidemiology of foodborne disease in the United States. At the regional and national levels, surveillance data provide an indication of the etiologic agents, vehicles of transmission, and contributing factors associated with FBDOs and help direct public health actions to reduce illness and death caused by FBDOs. (+info)
(36/861) Risk factors in causing outbreaks of food-borne illness originating in schoollunch facilities in Japan.
We reviewed records of all outbreaks of food-borne illnesses due to schoollunch in Japan from 1987 through 1996 to determine the risk factors causing these outbreaks. Major hazards in 269 outbreaks were Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Foods including uncooked or partially cooked items, salad or egg products presented a high risk in 62 outbreaks with confirmed food sources. Contaminated food items were involved in 29 incidents (46.8%); storage of foods for an extended period before serving in 29 incidents (46.8%), inadequate cooking and cross contamination in 21 incidents (33.9%) each; infected employees in nine incidents (14.5%). (+info)
(37/861) Toxic lactonic lipopeptide from food poisoning isolates of Bacillus licheniformis.
Toxins from three Bacillus licheniformis strains connected to a fatal food poisoning were isolated and their structures elucidated. Toxins were purified from methanol extracts of the B. licheniformis biomass using boar sperm cells as the toxicity indicator. The HPLC purified toxins showed protonated masses m/z 1007, 1021 and 1035 in MALDI-TOF-MS. The toxins isolated from the strains of different origins contained the same three components of which and each had a same amino-acid residues L-Gln, L-Leu, D-Leu, L-Val, L-Asp, D-Leu and L-Ile in that order. Toxins were identified as lichenysin A, a cyclic lactonic heptalipopeptide in which the main 3-hydroxy fatty acids are 13-15 carbons in length. We showed that the toxins from food and food poisoning isolates of B. licheniformis were identical to lichenysin A both in the structure and in the toxic symptoms induced to boar spermatozoa. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that the acrosome and the plasma membrane of boar spermatozoa were the targets of lichenysin A toxicity. (+info)
(38/861) Economic aspects of food-borne outbreaks and their control.
This paper begins with a discussion of the definition of an outbreak. It considers the portion of outbreaks in the general pattern of food-borne infectious disease. The methods used to identify outbreaks are described and the importance of the potential benefits and the economic impact of outbreak recognition and control and are discussed. The paper concludes by illustrating the economic impact of intervention using three infectious diseases botulism, Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157 as case studies of outbreaks. (+info)
(39/861) Control of vegetative micro-organisms in foods.
Microbes share our food whether we want them to or not. We need to control microbial proliferation in foods in order to avoid spoilage, to enhance flavour and, most importantly, to reduce the risk of food-borne illness. A broad spectrum of interventions are available to control microbial growth, but the most widely used is temperature. The use of temperature to control metabolically active bacteria is discussed briefly in the context of current practices. The marketing and legislative climate has provided an impetus to develop an ever-widening range of systems for microbiological control. This short review highlights some of the problems associated with such novel control systems, including selection of new spoilage agents or food-borne pathogens, and the difficulties of monitoring the efficiency of microbial control in the light of a better understanding of bacterial physiology. (+info)
(40/861) Control of bacterial spores.
Bacterial spores are much more resistant than their vegetative counterparts. The most dangerous spore-former is Clostridium botulinum which produces a potent neurotoxin that can prove fatal. The most common food poisoning from a spore-former is caused by C. perfringens. Other food poisoning spore-formers include Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis and B. licheniformis. There are a number of non-pathogenic spore-formers including butyric and thermophilic anaerobes that cause significant economic losses to food producers. Some unusual spoilage complaints have been reported, for example, B. sporothermodurans in UHT milk, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in apple and orange juice and Desulfotomaculum nigrificans in hot vending machines. Control of spore-formers requires an understanding of both the resistance and outgrowth characteristics of the spores. (+info)