(57/186) Occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens and management of exposure incidents in Nigerian dental schools.
The goal of this study was to determine the frequency of occupational exposures to bloodborne pathogens amongst Nigerian clinical dental students, their HBV vaccination status, and reporting practices. A cross-sectional study of all clinical dental students in the four Nigerian dental schools was carried out by means of an anonymous self-administered questionnaire that asked questions on demography, number and type of exposure, management of the exposures, personal protection against cross infection, and the reporting of such exposures. One hundred and fifty-three students responded (response rate of 84.5 percent). Only thirty-three (37.9 percent) were fully vaccinated against HBV. Ninety (58.8 percent) of the students have had at least one occupational exposure. There was no significantly associated difference between sex, age, location of school, and exposure. Most of the exposures (44.4 percent) occurred in association with manual tooth cleaning. There was inadequate protection of the eyes. None of the exposures were formally reported. It is the responsibility of training institutions to ensure the safety of the students by mandatory HBV vaccination prior to exposure and adequate training in work safety. Written policies and procedures should be developed and made easily accessible to all workers to facilitate prompt reporting and management of all occupational exposures. (+info)
(58/186) Comparing fourth-year dental student productivity and experiences in a dental school with community-based clinical education.
Reports and articles by the Institute of Medicine, the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Commission on Change and Innovation in Dental Education (CCI), and the Macy Foundation have examined the challenges confronting dental education and reached the conclusion that U.S. dental education is on the brink of major change. A recent "case for change" article by the CCI makes the argument that dental education, as currently structured, is quickly becoming obsolete, overpriced, and lacking in its ability to provide the education that future practitioners will need. The Ohio State University College of Dentistry (OSUCOD) began a major reorganization of its clinical education program upon receipt of a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation-sponsored Pipeline, Profession, and Practice grant. In our fourth year of the five-year grant program, known as the OHIO Project (Oral Health Improvement through Outreach), our fourth-year dental students approached the sixty-day target of time spent in community-based clinical education. The purpose of this report is to describe the productivity of students and the characteristics of the patient pool they care for in community-based sites as compared to our school-based clinics during that final year. This report reflects the activity of 102 students in the graduating class of 2006. Attendance (clinic utilization) was estimated to be 94 percent at OSUCOD and 99 percent at OHIO Project sites. In the aggregate, the OHIO Project-based students treated a total of 11,808 unique patients and completed 26,882 procedures in the community during their 41.9-day community experience. This translates into 116 unduplicated patients and 264 procedures per student in the community-based sites for the period studied. In comparison, the same students treated 19,344 unique patients and completed 28,680 procedures during ninety-three clinic days at the school. Each student treated 190 patients and completed 281 procedures. Fourth-year dental students completed as many procedures and generated similar revenue-equivalents in community sites as they did in a dental school clinic in half the time. (+info)
(59/186) Endotoxin contamination in the dental surgery.
Dental waterlines contain large numbers of Gram-negative bacteria. Endotoxin, a component of such organisms, has significant health implications. Paired samples of dental unit water and the aerosols generated during dental procedures were collected, and assayed for bacteria and endotoxin levels, using heterotrophic plate counts and the Limulus amoebocyte lysate test. Consistent with published studies, the extent of bacterial contamination in the dental waters sampled for this investigation surpassed the levels associated with potable water, with counts in excess of 2.0x10(6) c.f.u. ml(-1) in some samples. Correspondingly high concentrations of endotoxin [up to 15 000 endotoxin units (EU) ml(-1)] were present in the water. A statistically significant Spearman correlation coefficient of rho=0.94 between endotoxin (EU ml(-1)) and bacterial load (c.f.u. ml(-1)) was demonstrated. All of the aerosol samples contained detectable endotoxin. Further studies of the consequences of dental endotoxin exposure, and evaluation of means to prevent exposure, are warranted. (+info)
(60/186) Survey of special patient care programs at U.S. and Canadian dental schools.
This article describes the results of a survey of U.S. and Canadian dental schools regarding the delivery of dental care to special needs patients. The purposes of the fifteen-item survey were to identify the percentage of dental schools that operate special patient care (SPC) clinics, gain information as to how care is being provided in those clinics, and identify how this patient population is managed in institutions without designated SPC clinics. Forty percent of the respondent institutions had designated SPC clinics. Institutions without SPC clinics tend to mainstream these patients into their predoctoral clinics or refer them to residency programs such as GPR or pediatric programs within their university. (+info)
(61/186) Effectiveness of phase I orthodontic treatment in an undergraduate teaching clinic.
In this retrospective study, the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index was used to objectively evaluate the effectiveness of Phase I (early) orthodontic treatment provided in an undergraduate teaching clinic. Pre-treatment and post-treatment casts of ninety-three patients were analyzed. All patients selected for Phase I orthodontic treatment had Class I skeletal relationships and did not require complex orthodontic treatment such as growth modification or treatment of occlusions with missing or impacted teeth. The mean age of patients who received Phase I orthodontic treatment was 9.9 years. The mean initial PAR score for the sample was 29.70 +/-9.84. The mean reduction in PAR score was 14.9 points corresponding to a 50.2 percent decrease in the PAR score following Phase I orthodontic treatment. Seventy-three percent of the patients experienced at least a 30 percent reduction in their PAR score following Phase I (early) orthodontic treatment. The mean cost of $381.00 for the Phase I orthodontic treatment was found to be influenced by the length of treatment, type of Phase I treatment provided, age at start of treatment, and percentage reduction in PAR score. The greatest success rate for the Phase I orthodontic treatment occurred with either fixed or a combination of fixed and removable appliances. Over half of the patients recommended for Phase I orthodontic treatment in the undergraduate dental clinic were successfully treated and did not require Phase II treatment. For them, there was both a treatment and a financial benefit to the Phase I orthodontic treatment. (+info)
(62/186) Effectiveness of 2 scavenger mask systems for reducing exposure to nitrous oxide in a hospital-based pediatric dental clinic: a pilot study.
Chronic exposure to elevated ambient air levels of nitrous oxide during nitrous oxide/ oxygen (N2O/2) sedation can result in deleterious side effects to dentists and auxiliary staff. A sampling survey was done in the outpatient dental clinic at the Hospital for Sick Children to determine whether airborne nitrous oxide (N2O) gas concentrations were within established regulatory limits. The effectiveness of 2 scavenger mask systems, the Matrix Medical single-mask system and the Porter/Brown double-mask system, for reducing airborne contamination in a clinical environment during the treatment of pediatric dental patients was compared in a pilot study. The results indicated that the double-mask system more effectively minimized N2O exposure during N2O/O2 sedation of outpatients for a variety of clinical pediatric dental procedures. (+info)
(63/186) Use of an Electronic Patient Record system to evaluate restorative treatment following root canal therapy.
Electronic Patient Record (EPR) systems are rapidly gaining acceptance as an important tool for managing patient information. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the use of an EPR system for assessment of quality of care in an academic dental institution. The primary outcome of interest was the timeliness and completeness of restorative care following completion of nonsurgical root canal therapy. An initial query of the EPR database was performed using the following inclusion criteria: root canal treatment performed in the postgraduate endodontics clinic between September 2002 and June 2004, patient age > or =18 years old, and posterior tooth (premolars and molars). A total of 925 patients with 1,014 endodontically treated teeth met the inclusion criteria. A random sample of 30 percent of the treated teeth (302 teeth on 281 patients) was selected for detailed review. This sample of 302 teeth was then screened to determine if any restorative treatment had been performed between September 2002 and November 2005. Forty-eight percent (n=146) of the 302 teeth did not receive any form of permanent restoration over the time period studied. Twenty-five percent (n=75) of the teeth received a buildup only, and 27 percent (n=82) received the recommended treatment, a full occlusal coverage restoration. This study documents the use of an EPR system to objectively and efficiently assess one aspect of quality of care in a dental school environment. (+info)
(64/186) Management of occupational bloodborne exposure in a dental teaching environment.
The aims of this cross-sectional study were to investigate the prevalence of reporting occupational accidents regarding exposure to biological material among undergraduate students of dentistry at an institution of higher education and to estimate risk factors associated with underreporting. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire, which had an 86.4 percent rate of return. The sample was made up of 286 undergraduate dental students enrolled in the clinical component of the curriculum, corresponding to the final six semesters of study. The average age of the subjects was 22.4 years. Descriptive, bivariate, simple logistic regression and multiple logistic regression (Stepwise Forward Procedure) analyses were performed, with the significance level set at p< or =0.05. Of the total 167 individuals who had been exposed to biological material, 120 (71.9 percent) failed to report the accidents. The variables that were statistically associated with the nonreporting of occupational accidents were nonexposure to blood (OR=4.0; CI 95%: 1.7-10.0) and the fact that the students considered the exposure to be minor or of low risk (OR=8.8; CI 95%: 3.5-23.0) or considered the protocol adopted by the institution to be inadequate (OR=5.2; CI 95%: 1.2-17.1). The development of a procedure review policy is recommended with the aim of establishing continuous vigilance and encouraging the reporting of bloodborne exposure. (+info)