(65/3442) Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of recently adapted isolates of Plasmodium falciparum from Thailand.
The drug sensitivity characteristics and Plasmodium falciparum pfmdr1 status of five isolates of P. falciparum recently isolated from patients presenting for treatment from the Thailand/Myanmar border have been investigated. The aim of the study was to avoid the criticisms of some earlier studies by focusing on newly collected isolates from a specific geographic location. Three of the isolates studied exhibited clear resistance to chloroquine similar to that observed in the K1 Thai standard isolate obtained in the 1970s, and the other two isolates were of intermediate sensitivity to chloroquine with concentrations of drug that inhibit parasite growth by 50% of 50 and 43 nmol. The sensitivity of all isolates was enhanced by verapamil but we found no clear association between chloroquine sensitivity and gene copy number or intra-allelic variation of pfmdr1. In contrast, clear cross-resistance was seen between mefloquine and halofantrine, with the most sensitive isolates carrying the K1 mutation in pfmdr1. (+info)
(66/3442) Amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting of Pseudomonas strains from a poultry processing plant.
Molecular typing has been used previously to identify and trace dissemination of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria associated with food processing. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) is a novel DNA fingerprinting technique which is considered highly reproducible and has high discriminatory power. This technique was used to fingerprint 88 Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida strains that were previously isolated from plate counts of carcasses at six processing stages and various equipment surfaces and environmental sources of a poultry abattoir. Clustering of the AFLP patterns revealed a high level of diversity among the strains. Six clusters (clusters I through VI) were delineated at an arbitrary Dice coefficient level of 0.65; clusters III (31 strains) and IV (28 strains) were the largest clusters. More than one-half (52.3%) of the strains obtained from carcass samples, which may have represented the resident carcass population, grouped together in cluster III. By contrast, 43.2% of the strains from most of the equipment surfaces and environmental sources grouped together in cluster IV. In most cases, the clusters in which carcass strains from processing stages grouped corresponded to the clusters in which strains from the associated equipment surfaces and/or environmental sources were found. This provided evidence that there was cross-contamination between carcasses and the abattoir environment at the DNA level. The AFLP data also showed that strains were being disseminated from the beginning to the end of the poultry processing operation, since many strains associated with carcasses at the packaging stage were members of the same clusters as strains obtained from carcasses after the defeathering stage. (+info)
(67/3442) Application of ribotyping and IS200 fingerprinting to distinguish the five Salmonella serotype O6,7:c:1,5 groups: Choleraesuis sensu stricto, Choleraesuis var. Kunzendorf, Choleraesuis var. Decatur, Paratyphi C, and Typhisuis.
Sixty-seven strains of the five described Salmonella serotypes having antigens 6,7:c:1,5, that is S. enterica serotype Choleraesuis sensu stricto, Choleraesuis var. Kunzendorf, Choleraesuis var. Decatur, Paratyphi C, and Typhisuis, were examined for 16S rrn profile ribotype, presence of IS200 and phenotypic characters, including rate of change of flagellar-antigen phase and nutritional character. Choleraesuis sensu stricto and its Kunzendorf variant had related but distinct ribotypes. Therefore, ribotyping appears to be a suitable method for differentiating Choleraesuis non-Kunzendorf from Choleraesuis var. Kunzendorf. Some strains of Paratyphi C had 16S profiles that resembled that of Choleraesuis non-Kunzendorf, while others resembled that of Choleraesuis var. Kunzendorf. The Typhisuis profiles were like those of Choleraesuis non-Kunzendorf, while the Choleraesuis var. Decatur profiles were unlike those of any of the other four groups. Furthermore, IS200 fingerprinting discriminated between Choleraesuis var. Decatur and the other strains with antigenic formula O6,7:c:1,5, and comparison of IS200 patterns showed a high degree of genetic divergence within Choleraesuis var. Decatur. Our findings show that ribotyping and IS200 fingerprinting, combined with classical microbiological methods, distinguish the groups Choleraesuis non-Kunzendorf, Choleraesuis var. Kunzendorf, Choleraesuis var. Decatur, Paratyphi C and Typhisuis. (+info)
(68/3442) Amplified-fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting of Mycoplasma species.
Amplified-fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) is a whole-genome fingerprinting method based on selective amplification of restriction fragments. The potential of the method for the characterization of mycoplasmas was investigated in a total of 50 strains of human and animal origin, including Mycoplasma genitalium (n = 11), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (n = 5), Mycoplasma hominis (n = 5), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (n = 9), Myco plasma flocculare (n = 5), Mycoplasma hyosynoviae (n = 10), and Mycoplasma dispar (n = 5). AFLP templates were prepared by the digestion of mycoplasmal DNA with BglII and MfeI restriction endonucleases and subsequent ligation of corresponding site-specific adapters. The amplification of AFLP templates with a single set of nonselective primers resulted in reproducible fingerprints of approximately 60 to 80 fragments in the size range of 50 to 500 bp. The method was able to discriminate the analyzed strains at species and intraspecies levels as well. Each of the tested Mycoplasma species developed a banding pattern entirely different from those obtained from other species under analysis. Subtle intraspecies genomic differences were detected among strains of all of the Mycoplasma species analyzed. The extent of polymorphism varied markedly between the analyzed mycoplasmas, comprising pattern similarity levels from 61.7% detected among M. dispar strains to 95.9% detected among M. genitalium strains. The results of the present study provide evidence of the high discriminatory power of AFLP analysis, suggesting the possible applicability of this method to the molecular characterization of mycoplasmas. (+info)
(69/3442) Interactions of the integrase protein of the conjugative transposon Tn916 with its specific DNA binding sites.
The binding of two chimeric proteins, consisting of the N-terminal or C-terminal DNA binding domain of Tn916 Int fused to maltose binding protein, to specific oligonucleotide substrates was analyzed by gel mobility shift assay. The chimeric protein with the N-terminal domain formed two complexes of different electrophoretic mobilities. The faster-moving complex, whose formation displayed no cooperativity, contained two protein monomers bound to a single DNA molecule. The slower-moving complex, whose formation involved cooperative binding (Hill coefficient > 1.0), contained four protein monomers bound to a single DNA molecule. Methylation interference experiments coupled with the analysis of protein binding to mutant oligonucleotide substrates showed that formation of the faster-moving complex containing two protein monomers required the presence of two 11-bp direct repeats (called DR2) in direct orientation. Formation of the slower-moving complex required only a single DR2 repeat. Binding of the N-terminal domains in vivo could serve to position two Int monomers on the DNA near each end of the transposon and assist in bringing together the ends of the transposon so that excision can occur. The chimeric protein with the C-terminal domain of Int also formed two complexes of different electrophoretic mobilities. The major, slower-moving complex, whose formation involved cooperative binding, contained two protein molecules bound to one DNA molecule. This finding suggested that while the C-terminal domain of Int can bind DNA as a monomer, a cooperative interaction between two monomers of the C-terminal domain may help to bring the ends of the transposon together during excision. (+info)
(70/3442) Beta-lactamase production in Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, and Prevotella pallens genotypes and in vitro susceptibilities to selected antimicrobial agents.
The present study investigated the beta-lactamase production of 73 Prevotella intermedia, 84 Prevotella nigrescens, and 14 Prevotella pallens isolates and their in vitro susceptibilities to six antimicrobial agents. The P. intermedia and P. nigrescens isolates were recovered from oral and extraoral samples obtained from subjects in two geographic locations from 1985 to 1995. The clonality of the beta-lactamase-positive and beta-lactamase-negative isolates and the clustering of the genotypes were studied by arbitrarily primed-PCR fingerprinting. beta-Lactamase production was detected in 29% of P. intermedia isolates, 29% of P. nigrescens isolates, and 57% of P. pallens isolates. No difference in the frequencies of beta-lactamase production by P. intermedia and P. nigrescens between isolates from oral and extraoral sites, between isolates obtained at different time periods, or between P. intermedia isolates from different geographic locations was observed. However, the P. nigrescens isolates from the United States were significantly more frequently (P = 0.015) beta-lactamase positive than those from Finland. No association between the genotypes and beta-lactamase production or between the genotypes and the sources of the isolates was found. The penicillin G MICs at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited were 8 microg/ml for P. intermedia, 8 microg/ml for P. nigrescens, and 16 microg/ml for P. pallens. For the beta-lactamase-negative isolates, the corresponding values were 0.031, 0.031, and 0.125 microg/ml, and for the beta-lactamase-positive isolates, the corresponding values were 16, 8, and 32 microg/ml. All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefoxitin, metronidazole, azithromycin, and trovafloxacin. The MICs of amoxicillin-clavulanate and cefoxitin were relatively higher for the beta-lactamase-positive population than for the beta-lactamase-negative population. (+info)
(71/3442) Molecular characterisation of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli of serogroup O111 from different countries.
A collection of epidemiologically unrelated verocytotoxin (VT)-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) strains of serogroup O111 isolated from human patients and cattle with diarrhoeal disease in five different countries were characterised by determination of their VT genotypes, the presence of other virulence factors such as the intimin-coding eae gene and the enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) plasmid, and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. The genetic relatedness among isolates was evaluated by genomic DNA fingerprinting techniques such as restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of ribosomal RNA genes (ribotyping) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that the VTEC O111 examined belong to two distinct clonal lineages. The first group was constituted mainly of non-motile, eae-positive, EHEC plasmid-positive isolates from both man and cattle. The second lineage was represented by an O111:H2 epidemic strain, isolated during an outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome in France and exhibiting an unusual combination of virulence factors: VT production and aggregative adhesion to HEp-2 cells associated with an enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) plasmid. (+info)
(72/3442) Methods for subtyping and molecular comparison of human viral genomes.
The development over the past two decades of molecular methods for manipulation of RNA and DNA has afforded molecular virologists the ability to study viral genomes in detail that has heretofore not been possible. There are many molecular techniques now available for typing and subtyping of viruses. The available methods include restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, Southern blot analysis, oligonucleotide fingerprint analysis, reverse hybridization, DNA enzyme immunoassay, RNase protection analysis, single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, heteroduplex mobility assay, nucleotide sequencing, and genome segment length polymorphism analysis. The methods have certain advantages and disadvantages which should be considered in their application to specific viruses or for specific purposes. These techniques are likely to become more widely used in the future for epidemiologic studies and for investigations into the pathophysiology of virus infections. (+info)