(17/3442) Genomic fingerprinting and development of a dendrogram for Brucella spp. isolated from seals, porpoises, and dolphins.

Genomic DNA from reference strains and biovars of the genus Brucella was analyzed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Fingerprints were compared to estimate genetic relatedness among the strains and to obtain information on evolutionary relationships. Electrophoresis of DNA digested with the restriction endonuclease XbaI produced fragment profiles for the reference type strains that distinguished these strains to the level of species. Included in this study were strains isolated from marine mammals. The PFGE profiles from these strains were compared with those obtained from the reference strains and biovars. Isolates from dolphins had similar profiles that were distinct from profiles of Brucella isolates from seals and porpoises. Distance matrix analyses were used to produce a dendrogram. Biovars of B. abortus were clustered together in the dendrogram; similar clusters were shown for biovars of B. melitensis and for biovars of B. suis. Brucella ovis, B. canis, and B. neotomae differed from each other and from B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis. The relationship between B. abortus strain RB51 and other Brucella biovars was compared because this strain has replaced B. abortus strain 19 for use as a live vaccine in cattle and possibly in bison and elk. These results support the current taxonomy of Brucella species and the designation of an additional genomic group(s) of Brucella. The PFGE analysis in conjunction with distance matrix analysis was a useful tool for calculating genetic relatedness among the Brucella species.  (+info)

(18/3442) Complementary randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis patterns and primer sets to differentiate Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains.

Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to differentiate 7 strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Six commercially available primers or primer combinations were screened for their ability to differentiate vaccine and type strains. Although major and minor bands were produced with each primer, many of the primers were unsuitable for strain differentiation. The use of primer 6 and combined primers 3 and 4 resulted in complementary RAPD banding patterns for each M. gallisepticum strain. Eleven different isolates representing 7 different strains were segregated into 7 different patterns, corresponding to the 7 strains.  (+info)

(19/3442) Molecular typing of Salmonella serotype Thompson strains isolated from human and animal sources.

One-hundred-and-thirteen isolates of Salmonella serotype Thompson from diverse sources in seven countries were characterized by PvuII ribotyping and IS200 fingerprinting. Ten PvuII ribotypes were observed. The predominant PvuII ribotype 1 represented a major clone of world-wide distribution but was not found in Australia; PvuII ribotypes 2 and 3 represented minor clones. HincII ribotyping discriminated subtypes within PvuII ribotype 1: HincII ribotype 1 was distributed widely but HincII ribotype 2 was found mainly in Scottish isolates. None of 101 isolates of PvuII ribotypes 1-3 contained copies of IS200. All 12 isolates of PvuII ribotypes 4-10 were from Australia and 7 of them contained copies of IS200 of 5 different profiles. These results suggest the existence of at least two lineages of Salmonella Thompson with a different geographical distribution. The finding that most isolates from man and poultry in Scotland belonged to the same ribotype (PvuII 1/HincII 2) and were IS200-negative suggests that poultry is an important source of human infection in Scotland.  (+info)

(20/3442) Different strategies for molecular differentiation of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated in Sardinia, Italy.

Different genetic markers were used to analyze 22 Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle in Sardinia and one human isolate. IS6110 DNA fingerprinting differentiated the strains into six patterns, whereas with enterobacterial repetitive consensus sequence primers produced seven clusters. PCR ribotyping followed by digestion with HaeIII and PvuII produced five and seven patterns, respectively. PCR with the (GTG)5 oligonucleotide primer showed the best discriminatory power, generating eight clusters among the strains analyzed.  (+info)

(21/3442) Mycobacterium malmoense-specific nested PCR based on a conserved sequence detected in random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprints.

Mycobacterium malmoense is an opportunistic human pathogen of increasing clinical importance. Since it is difficult to detect and identify the organism by conventional techniques, it was decided to seek a nucleic acid amplification method specific for M. malmoense. The method was based on detection of a conserved band in random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprints of 45 M. malmoense strains. This band was a 1,046-bp product which was proven to be M. malmoense specific in dot blot hybridization analysis with a panel of mycobacterial strains belonging to 39 other species. The fragment was sequenced, and oligonucleotide primers were synthesized to evaluate the specificity of the PCR. Two primer pairs were found to be specific and sensitive in the nested PCR that was developed. All 49 M. malmoense strains analyzed produced a PCR product of the expected size. In contrast, no strains belonging to the other mycobacterial species tested produced amplicons with these primers under specified reaction conditions. The results of the electrophoresis were confirmed by the hybridization with the M. malmoense-specific oligonucleotide probe. This method could be applied to the analysis of clinical or environmental samples, permitting the rapid detection of M. malmoense.  (+info)

(22/3442) AFLP fingerprinting: an efficient technique for detecting genetic variation of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis.

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam) is the causative agent of cassava bacterial blight (CBB), a worldwide disease that is particularly destructive in South America and Africa. CBB is controlled essentially through the use of resistant varieties. To develop an appropriate disease management strategy, the genetic diversity of the pathogen's populations must be assessed. Until now, the genetic diversity of Xam was characterized by RFLP analyses using ribotyping, and plasmid and genomic Xam probes. We used AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism), a novel PCR-based technique, to characterize the genetic diversity of Colombian Xam isolates. Six Xam strains were tested with 65 AFLP primer combinations to identify the best selective primers. Eight primer combinations were selected according to their reproducibility, number of polymorphic bands and polymorphism detected between Xam strains. Forty-seven Xam strains, originating from different Colombian ecozones, were analysed with the selected combinations. Results obtained with AFLP are consistent with those obtained with RFLP, using plasmid DNA as a probe. Some primer combinations differentiated Xam strains that were not distinguished by RFLP analyses, thus AFLP fingerprinting allowed a better definition of the genetic relationships between Xam strains.  (+info)

(23/3442) A contiguous 3-Mb sequence-ready map in the S3-MX region on 21q22.2 based on high- throughput nonisotopic library screenings.

Progress in complete genomic sequencing of human chromosome 21 relies on the construction of high-quality bacterial clone maps spanning large chromosomal regions. To achieve this goal, we have applied a strategy based on nonradioactive hybridizations to contig building. A contiguous sequence-ready map was constructed in the Down syndrome congenital heart disease (DS-CHD) region in 21q22.2, as a framework for large-scale genomic sequencing and positional candidate gene approach. Contig assembly was performed essentially by high throughput nonisotopic screenings of genomic libraries, prior to clone validation by (1) restriction digest fingerprinting, (2) STS analysis, (3) Southern hybridizations, and (4) FISH analysis. The contig contains a total of 50 STSs, of which 13 were newly isolated. A minimum tiling path (MTP) was subsequently defined that consists of 20 PACs, 2 BACs, and 5 cosmids covering 3 Mb between D21S3 and MX1. Gene distribution in the region includes 9 known genes (c21-LRP, WRB, SH3BGR, HMG14, PCP4, DSCAM, MX2, MX1, and TMPRSS2) and 14 new additional gene signatures consisting of cDNA selection products and ESTs. Forthcoming genomic sequence information will unravel the structural organization of potential candidate genes involved in specific features of Down syndrome pathogenesis.  (+info)

(24/3442) Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in an osteopetrosis patient: first report in Thailand.

We described the successful allogeneic matched sibling bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in a 5-year-old Thai boy in whom osteopetrosis was diagnosed on the basis of anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukoerythroblastosis, sclerotic bone, hepatosplenomegaly, and visual deficit from an encroachment of cranial nerve foramina. The preparative regimen included 4 days of busulfan 4 mg/kg/day, and 4 days of cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg/day. Complete hematopoietic engraftment and no evidence of graft versus host disease were shown after BMT. Complete hematologic findings were corrected. His hematopoietic chimerism was changed to that of his donor. Post BMT, he has no hepatosplenomegaly. His bone radiographic findings revealed normal after BMT. Bone marrow biopsy showed normalized bone and bone marrow matrix. However, his vision remained impaired. We believe that this is the first case of successful bone marrow transplantation in an osteopetrosis patient in Thailand.  (+info)