(33/40) D-xylose utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Although it is generally accepted that Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unable to assimilate D-xylose, four strains were found to utilize xylose aerobically at different efficiencies in the presence of a mixture of substrates. The degree of D-xylose utilization by S. cerevisiae ATCC 26602 depended upon the presence of other substrates or yeast extract. The greatest amount of xylose (up to 69% over 7 d) was utilized when sugar substrates such as D-ribose were co-metabolized. Much lower degrees of utilization occurred with co-metabolism of organic acids, polyols or ethanol. A mixture of D-glucose, D-ribose, D-raffinose, glycerol and D-xylose resulted in greater xylose utilization than the presence of a single substrate and xylose. The absence of growth on a co-substrate alone did not prevent the utilization of xylose in its presence. Xylose was co-metabolized with ribose under anaerobic conditions but at a much slower rate than under aerobic conditions. When [14C]xylose was utilized in the presence of ribose under anaerobic conditions, the radioactive label was detected mainly in xylitol and not in the small amounts of ethanol produced. Under aerobic conditions the radioactive label was distributed between xylitol (91.3 +/- 0.8%), CO2 (2.6 +/- 2.3%) and biomass (1.7 +/- 0.6%). No other metabolic products were detected. Whereas most xylose was dissimilated rather than assimilated by S. cerevisiae, the organism apparently possesses a pathway which completely oxidizes xylose in the presence of another substrate. (+info)
(34/40) Characterization of xylitol-utilizing mutants of Erwinia uredovora.
Of the four pentitols ribitol, xylitol, D-arabitol, and L-arabitol, Erwinia uredovora was able to utilize only D-arabitol as a carbon and energy source. Although attempts to isolate ribitol- or L-arabitol-utilizing mutants were unsuccessful, mutants able to grow on xylitol were isolated at a frequency of 9 X 10(-8). Xylitol-positive mutants constitutively synthesized both a novel NAD-dependent xylitol-4-dehydrogenase, which oxidized xylitol to L-xylulose, and an L-xylulokinase. The xylitol dehydrogenase had a Km for xylitol of 48 mM and showed best activity with xylitol and D-threitol as substrates. However, D-threitol was not a growth substrate for E. uredovora, and its presence did not induce either dehydrogenase or kinase activity. Attempts to determine the origin of the xylitol catabolic enzymes were unsuccessful; neither enzyme was induced on any growth substrate or in the presence of any polyol tested. Analysis of xylitol-negative mutants isolated after Tn5 mutagenesis suggested that the xylitol dehydrogenase and the L-xylulokinase structural genes were components of two separate operons but were under common regulatory control. (+info)
(35/40) Purification and characterization of ribitol-5-phosphate and xylitol-5-phosphate dehydrogenases from strains of Lactobacillus casei.
A simple three-step procedure is described which yields electrophoretically homogeneous preparations of ribitol-5-phosphate dehydrogenase and xylitol-5-phosphate dehydrogenase. The former enzyme is a 115,000-molecular-weight protein composed of two subunits of identical size and is specific for its substrate, ribitol. The xylitol-5-phosphate dehydrogenase exists as a tetrameric protein with a molecular weight of 180,000; this enzyme oxidizes the phosphate esters of both xylitol and D-arabitol. Characterization of the physical, kinetic, and immunological properties of the two enzymes suggests that the functionally similar enzymes may not be structurally related. (+info)
(36/40) Inducible xylitol dehydrogenases in enteric bacteria.
Morganella morganii ATCC 25829, Providencia stuartii ATCC 25827, Serratia marcescens ATCC 13880, and Erwinia sp. strain 4D2P were found to induce a xylitol dehydrogenase when grown on a xylitol-containing medium. The xylitol dehydrogenases were partially purified from the four strains, and those from M. morganii ATCC 25829, P. stuartii ATCC 25827, and S. marcescens ATCC 13880 were all found to oxidize xylitol to D-xylulose. These three enzymes had KmS for xylitol of 7.1 to 16.4 mM and molecular weights ranging from 130,000 to 155,000. In contrast, the xylitol dehydrogenase from Erwinia sp. strain 4D2P oxidized xylitol at the C-4 position to produce L-xylulose, had a Km for xylitol of 72 mM, and had a molecular weight of 102,000. (+info)
(37/40) Directed evolution of a second xylitol catabolic pathway in Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Klebsiella pneumoniae PRL-R3 has inducible catabolic pathways for the degradation of ribitol and D-arabitol but cannot utilize xylitol as a growth substrate. A mutation in the rbtB regulatory gene of the ribitol operon permits the constitutive synthesis of the ribitol catabolic enzymes and allows growth on xylitol. The evolved xylitol catabolic pathway consists of an induced D-arabitol permease system that also transports xylitol, a constitutively synthesized ribitol dehydrogenase that oxidizes xylitol at the C-2 position to produce D-xylulose, and an induced D-xylulokinase from either the D-arabitol or D-xylose catabolic pathway. To investigate the potential of K. pneumoniae to evolve a different xylitol catabolic pathway, strains were constructed which were unable to synthesize ribitol dehydrogenase or either type of D-xylulokinase but constitutively synthesized the D-arabitol permease system. These strains had an inducible L-xylulokinase; therefore, the evolution of an enzyme which oxidized xylitol at the C-4 position to L-xylulose would establish a new xylitol catabolic pathway. Four independent xylitol-utilizing mutants were isolated, each of which had evolved a xylitol-4-dehydrogenase activity. The four dehydrogenases appeared to be identical because they comigrated during nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This novel xylitol dehydrogenase was constitutively synthesized, whereas L-xylulokinase remained inducible. Transductional analysis showed that the evolved dehydrogenase was not an altered ribitol or D-arabitol dehydrogenase and that the evolved dehydrogenase structural gene was not linked to the pentitol gene cluster. This evolved dehydrogenase had the highest activity with xylitol as a substrate, a Km for xylitol of 1.4 M, and a molecular weight of 43,000. (+info)
(38/40) Amino acid substitutions in the yeast Pichia stipitis xylitol dehydrogenase coenzyme-binding domain affect the coenzyme specificity.
Directed mutagenesis has been used to identify a set of amino acids in the Pichia stipitis xylitol dehydrogenase, encoded by the xylitol dehydrogenase gene XYL2, which is involved in specific NAD binding. Within the binding domain, a characteristic beta alpha beta-fold is centered around a glycine motif GXGXXG also containing conserved aspartate and lysine/arginine residues. The mutation D207-->G and the double mutation D207-->G and D210-->G increased the apparent Km for NAD ninefold and decreased the xylitol dehydrogenase activity to 47% and 35%, respectively, as compared to the unaltered enzyme. The introduction of the potential NADP-recognition sequence (GSRPVC) of the alcohol dehydrogenase from Thermoanaerobium brockii into the xylitol dehydrogenase allowed the mutant enzyme to use both NAD and NADP as cofactor with equal apparent Km values. Although this mutant enzyme displayed an unaltered NADP acceptance, the reduction of the NAD specificity in the stably expressed enzyme variant is an important first step towards the long-term goal to reverse the coenzyme specificity from NAD to NADP. The mutagenized XYL2 gene could still mediate growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformants on xylose minimal-medium plates when expressed together with the xylose reductase gene (XYL1). (+info)
(39/40) Dual relationships of xylitol and alcohol dehydrogenases in families of two protein types.
Xylitol dehydrogenase encoded by gene XYL2 from Pichia stipitis is a member of the medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase family, as evidenced by the domain organization and a distant homology (24% residue identity with the human class I gamma 1 alcohol dehydrogenase). Much of a loop structure is missing, like in mammalian sorbitol and prokaryotic threonine dehydrogenases, many additional differences occur, and relationships are closest with the sorbitol dehydrogenase, the equivalence of which in P. stipitis may actually be the xylitol dehydrogenase. A second P. stipitis gene, also cloned and corresponding to a xylitol dehydrogenase, is highly different from XYL2, but encodes an enzyme with structural properties typical of the short-chain dehydrogenase family, which also contains an alcohol dehydrogenase (from Drosophila). Thus, yeast xylitol dehydrogenases, like alcohol and polyol dehydrogenases from other sources, have dual derivations, combining similar enzyme activities in separate protein families. In contrast to the situation with the other enzymes, both forms of xylitol dehydrogenase are present in one organism. (+info)
(40/40) Structural and functional properties of a yeast xylitol dehydrogenase, a Zn2+-containing metalloenzyme similar to medium-chain sorbitol dehydrogenases.
The NAD+-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase from the xylose-assimilating yeast Galactocandida mastotermitis has been purified in high yield (80%) and characterized. Xylitol dehydrogenase is a heteronuclear multimetal protein that forms homotetramers and contains 1 mol of Zn2+ ions and 6 mol of Mg2+ ions per mol of 37.4 kDa protomer. Treatment with chelating agents such as EDTA results in the removal of the Zn2+ ions with a concomitant loss of enzyme activity. The Mg2+ ions are not essential for activity and are removed by chelation or extensive dialysis without affecting the stability of the enzyme. Results of initial velocity studies at steady state for d-sorbitol oxidation and d-fructose reduction together with the characteristic patterns of product inhibition point to a compulsorily ordered Theorell-Chance mechanism of xylitol dehydrogenase in which coenzyme binds first and leaves last. At pH 7.5, the binding of NADH (Ki approximately 10 microM) is approx. 80-fold tighter than that of NAD+. Polyhydroxyalcohols require at least five carbon atoms to be good substrates of xylitol dehydrogenase, and the C-2 (S), C-3 (R) and C-4 (R) configuration is preferred. Therefore xylitol dehydrogenase shares structural and functional properties with medium-chain sorbitol dehydrogenases. (+info)