The cDNA encoding a putative xylose reductase (xyrA) from Aspergillus oryzae was cloned and coexpressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with A. oryzae xylitol dehydrogenase cDNA (xdhA). XyrA exhibited NADPH-dependent xylose reductase activity. The S. cerevisiae strain, overexpressing the xyrA, xdhA, endogenous XKS1, and TAL1 genes, grew on xylose as sole carbon source, and produced ethanol. (+info)
(26/40) Ethanol production from xylo-oligosaccharides by xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing beta-xylosidase.
Construction of xylose- and xylo-oligosaccharide-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains is important, because hydrolysates derived from lignocellulosic biomass contain significant amounts of these sugars. We have obtained recombinant S. cerevisiae strain MA-D4 (D-XKXDHXR), expressing xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase and xylulokinase. In the present study, we generated recombinant strain D-XSD/XKXDHXR by transforming MA-D4 with a beta-xylosidase gene cloned from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. The intracellular beta-xylosidase-specific activity of D-XSD/XKXDHXR was high, while that of the control strain was under the limit of detection. D-XSD/XKXDHXR produced ethanol, and xylose accumulated in the culture supernatant under fermentation in a medium containing xylo-oligosaccharides as sole carbon source. beta-Xylosidase-specific activity in D-XSD/XKXDHXR declined due to xylose both in vivo and in vitro. D-XSD/XKXDHXR converted xylo-oligosaccharides in an enzymatic hydrolysate of eucalyptus to ethanol. These results indicate that D-XSD/XKXDHXR efficiently converted xylo-oligosaccharides to xylose and subsequently to ethanol. (+info)
(27/40) Analysis and prediction of the physiological effects of altered coenzyme specificity in xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase during xylose fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
(28/40) Ethanol production from xylose by a recombinant Candida utilis strain expressing protein-engineered xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase.
The industrial yeast Candida utilis can grow on media containing xylose as sole carbon source, but cannot ferment it to ethanol. The deficiency might be due to the low activity of NADPH-preferring xylose reductase (XR) and NAD(+)-dependent xylitol dehydogenase (XDH), which convert xylose to xylulose, because C. utilis can ferment xylulose. We introduced multiple site-directed mutations in the coenzyme binding sites of XR and XDH derived from the xylose-fermenting yeast Candida shehatae to alter their coenzyme specificities. Several combinations of recombinant and native XRs and XDHs were tested. Highest productivity was observed in a strain expressing CsheXR K275R/N277D (NADH-preferring) and native CsheXDH (NAD(+)-dependent), which produced 17.4 g/L of ethanol from 50 g/L of xylose in 20 h. Analysis of the genes responsible for ethanol production from the xylose capacity of C. utilis indicated that the introduction of CsheXDH was essential, while overexpression of CsheXR K275R/N277D improved efficiency of ethanol production. (+info)
(29/40) Characterization of genes involved in D-sorbitol oxidation in thermotolerant Gluconobacter frateurii.
Further upstream of sldSLC, genes for FAD-dependent D-sorbitol dehydrogenase in Gluconobacter frateurii, three additional genes (sldR, xdhA, and perA) are found: for a transcriptional regulator, NAD(P)-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase, and a transporter protein, a member of major facilitator superfamily, respectively. xdhA and perA but not sldR were found to be in the same transcriptional unit. Disruption of sldR resulted in a dramatic decrease in sldSLC promoter activity, indicating that it is an activator for sldSLC expression. The recombinant protein of XdhA expressed in Escherichia coli showed NAD-dependent dehydrogenase activities with xylitol and D-sorbitol, but a mutant strain defective in this gene showed similar activities with both substrates as compared to the wild-type strain. Nonetheless, the growth of the xdhA mutant strain on D-sorbitol and xylitol was retarded, and so was that of a mutant strain defective in perA. These results indicate that xdhA and perA are involved in assimilation of D-sorbitol and xylitol. (+info)
(30/40) Rational and evolutionary engineering approaches uncover a small set of genetic changes efficient for rapid xylose fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
(31/40) Comparative xylose metabolism among the Ascomycetes C. albicans, S. stipitis and S. cerevisiae.
(32/40) Point mutation of the xylose reductase (XR) gene reduces xylitol accumulation and increases citric acid production in Aspergillus carbonarius.