(1/1134) Ataxia, ocular telangiectasia, chromosome instability, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis in a patient with an unknown breakage syndrome.
An 8 year old boy who had Langerhans cell histiocytosis when he was 15 months old showed psychomotor regression from the age of 2 years. Microcephaly, severe growth deficiency, and ocular telangiectasia were also evident. Magnetic nuclear resonance imaging showed cerebellar atrophy. Alphafetoprotein was increased. Chromosome instability after x irradiation and rearrangements involving chromosome 7 were found. Molecular study failed to show mutations involving the ataxia-telangiectasia gene. This patient has a clinical picture which is difficult to relate to a known breakage syndrome. Also, the relationship between the clinical phenotype and histiocytosis is unclear. (+info)
(2/1134) Analysis of the CAVEOLIN-1 gene at human chromosome 7q31.1 in primary tumours and tumour-derived cell lines.
We identified CAVEOLIN-1 as a candidate for a tumour suppressor gene mapping to human chromosome 7q31.1. A number of studies suggest that caveolin could function as a tumour suppressor. Expression of caveolin, and in turn the number of caveolae within a cell, are inversely correlated with the transforming ability of numerous oncoproteins, including H-ras, v-abl, and bcr-abl, and caveolin is a major transformation-dependent substrate of v-src. Heterologous expression of caveolin has been shown to abrogate anchorage-independent growth and induce apoptosis in transformed fibroblasts and also to suppress anchorage-independent growth in human mammary carcinoma cells. We have analysed the status and expression of the human CAVEOLIN-1 gene in primary tumours and tumour-derived cell lines. We found no evidence for mutation of CAVEOLIN-1 in human cancers. Additionally, we found that while the first two exons of CAVEOLIN-1 are associated with a CpG island, this is not methylated in either primary tumours or in tumour-derived cell lines in which Caveolin-1 expression is low or undetectable. The level of expression of Caveolin-1 does not correlate with loss of heterozygosity at the CAVEOLIN-1 locus in these same cell lines. Contrary to other published studies, we have shown that CAVEOLIN-1 is not expressed in normal breast ductal epithelial cells in vivo. CAVEOLIN-1 is however highly expressed in breast myoepithelial cells and its expression is retained in tumours derived from breast myoepithelium. Together our data refute a role for CAVEOLIN-1 as a breast tumour suppressor gene in vivo. (+info)
(3/1134) Human acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) gene organization and evidence that the 4.3-kilobase ACAT-1 mRNA is produced from two different chromosomes.
Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) plays important roles in cellular cholesterol homeostasis. Four human ACAT-1 mRNAs (7.0, 4.3, 3.6, and 2.8 kilobases (kb)) share the same short 5'-untranslated region (exon 1) and coding sequence (exons 2-15). The 4.3-kb mRNA contains an additional 5'-untranslated region (1289 nucleotides in length; exons Xa and Xb) immediately upstream from the exon 1 sequence. One ACAT-1 genomic DNA insert covers exons 1-16 and a promoter (the P1 promoter). A separate insert covers exon Xa (1277 base pairs) and a different promoter (the P7 promoter). Gene mapping shows that exons 1-16 and the P1 promoter sequences are located in chromosome 1, while exon Xa and the P7 promoter sequence are located in chromosome 7. RNase protection assays demonstrate three different protected fragments, corresponding to the 4.3-kb mRNA and the two other mRNAs transcribed from the two promoters. These results are consistent with the interpretation that the 4.3-kb mRNA is produced from two different chromosomes, by a novel RNA recombination mechanism involving trans-splicing of two discontinuous precursor RNAs. (+info)
(4/1134) Association and linkage analysis of candidate chromosomal regions in multiple sclerosis: indication of disease genes in 12q23 and 7ptr-15.
Four recent genome-wide screen studies in multiple sclerosis (MS) identified a number of candidate regions for susceptibility genes in addition to the HLA complex in 6p21. However, none of these regions provided formally significant evidence for genome-wide linkage. We have investigated such regions in 46 Swedish multiplex MS families, 28 singleton families, 190 sporadic MS patients and 148 normal controls by parametric and nonparametric linkage and association analysis. One microsatellite marker, in 12q23, provided evidence for association in addition to suggestive transmission distortion and slightly positive linkage. In addition, a marker in 7ptr-15 showed a significant transmission distortion as well as a highly significant score in affected pedigree member analysis, but not quite significant deviations in association analysis. One of three markers in 5p, a region implicated in all four previous studies, showed a weakly positive lod score, but no other evidence of importance. Markers in 2p23, 5q11-13, 6q25, 7q21-22, 11q21-23, 13q33-34, 16p13.2, 18p11.32-23, Xp21.3 provided little or no evidence of importance for MS. In summary, these data support the importance of genome-wide screens in the identification of new candidate loci in polygenic disorders. (+info)
(5/1134) Cytogenetic analysis of sperm chromosomes and sperm nuclei in a male heterozygous for a reciprocal translocation t(5;7)(q21;q32) by in situ hybridisation.
We have studied the meiotic segregation of a reciprocal translocation t(5;7)(q21;q32) in a male carrier, using the human sperm-hamster oocyte fusion technique and the whole chromosome painting. A total of 296 sperm complements were analysed by dual chromosome painting. The frequencies of alternate, adjacent-1, adjacent-2 and 3:1 segregation were 49.7%, 32.4%, 16.2% and 1.7% respectively. Aneuploidy frequencies for chromosomes not involved in the translocation were determined by FISH on decondensed sperm heads using probes from chromosomes X, Y, 6, 18 and 21. A total of 20,118 spermatozoa was analysed, 10,201 by two-colour FISH (probes for chromosomes 6 and 21) and 9917 by three-colour FISH (probes for chromosomes X, Y, and 18). There was no evidence of an interchromosomal effect, since disomy frequencies were within the range of normal controls. (+info)
(6/1134) Refined mapping of the region of loss of heterozygosity on the long arm of chromosome 7 in human breast cancer defines the location of a second tumor suppressor gene at 7q22 in the region of the CUTL1 gene.
In breast cancer, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) has been described on the long arm of chromosome 7, at band q31, suggesting the presence of a tumor suppressor gene in this region. In this study, we have identified a second region of LOH on 7q, at band 7q22. Deletion of genetic material at 7q22 was found in all tumor types and grades and was associated with increased tumor size. The region of LOH at 7q22 in every case included one or more of three polymorphic markers that are located within the CUTL1 gene. LOH of 7q22 has also been documented in the case of human uterine leiomyomas (Zeng et al., 1997; Ishwad et al., 1997). Interestingly, in both leiomyomas and mammary tumors induced in transgenic mice expressing the Polyomavirus (PyV) large T (LT) antigen, immunocomplexes of CUTL1 and PyV LT antigen were detected (Webster et al., 1998). Altogether, genetic data in human breast cancer and biochemical analyses in breast tumors from transgenic mice suggest that CUTL1 is a candidate tumor suppressor gene. (+info)
(7/1134) Sequence and detailed organization of the human caveolin-1 and -2 genes located near the D7S522 locus (7q31.1). Methylation of a CpG island in the 5' promoter region of the caveolin-1 gene in human breast cancer cell lines.
The CA microsatellite repeat marker, D7S522, is located at the center of a approximately 1000 kb smallest common deleted region that is lost in many forms of human cancer. It has been proposed that a putative tumor suppressor gene lies in close proximity to D7S522, within this smallest common deleted region. However, the genes located in proximity to D7S522 have remained elusive. Recently, we identified five independent BAC clones (approximately 100-200 kb) containing D7S522 and the human genes encoding caveolins 1 and 2. Here, we present the detailed organization of the caveolin locus and its relationship to D7S522, as deduced using a shot-gun sequencing approach. We derived two adjacent contigs for a total coverage of approximately 250 kb. Analysis of these contigs reveals that D7S522 is located approximately 67 kb upstream of the caveolin-2 gene and that the caveolin-2 gene is located approximately 19 kb upstream of the caveolin-1 gene, providing for the first time a detailed genetic map of this region. Further sequence analysis reveals many interesting features of the caveolin genes; these include the intron-exon boundaries and several previously unrecognized CA repeats that lie within or in close proximity to the caveolin genes. The first and second exons of both caveolin genes are embedded within CpG islands. These results suggest that regulation of caveolin gene expression may be controlled, in part, by methylation of these CpG regions. In support of this notion, we show here that the CGs in the 5' promoter region of the caveolin-1 gene are functionally methylated in two human breast cancer cell lines (MCF7 and T-47D) that fail to express the caveolin-1 protein. In contrast, the same CGs in cultured normal human mammary epithelial cells (NHMECs) are non-methylated and these cells express high levels of the caveolin-1 protein. Comparison of the human locus with the same locus in the pufferfish Fugu rubripes reveals that the overall organization of the caveolin-1/-2 locus is conserved from pufferfish to man. In conclusion, our current studies provide a systematic basis for diagnostically evaluating the potential deletion, mutation, or methylation of the caveolin genes in a variety of human tumors. (+info)
(8/1134) 47,XX,UPD(7)mat,+r(7)pat/46,XX,UPD(7)mat mosaicism in a girl with Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS): possible exclusion of the putative SRS gene from a 7p13-q11 region.
Maternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 7 (UPD7) may present with a characteristic phenotype reminiscent of Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). Previous studies have suggested that approximately 10% of SRS patients have maternal UPD7. We describe a girl with a mos47,XX,+mar/46,XX karyotype associated with the features of SRS. Chromosome painting using a chromosome 7 specific probe pool showed that the small marker was a ring chromosome 7 (r(7)). PCR based microsatellite marker analysis of the patient detected only one maternal allele at each of 16 telomeric loci examined on chromosome 7, but showed both paternal and maternal alleles at four centromeric loci. Considering her mosaic karyotype composed ofdiploid cells and cells with partial trisomy for 7p13-q11, the allele types obtained at the telomeric loci may reflect the transmission of one maternal allele in duplicate, that is, maternal UPD7 (complete isodisomy or homodisomy 7), whereas those at the centromeric loci were consistent with biparental contribution to the trisomic region. It is most likely that the patient originated in a 46,XX,r(7) zygote, followed by duplication of the maternally derived whole chromosome 7 in an early mitosis, and subsequent loss of the paternally derived ring chromosome 7 in a subset of somatic cells. The cell with 46,XX,r(7) did not survive thereafter because of the monosomy for most of chromosome 7. If the putative SRS gene is imprinted, it can be ruled out from the 7p11-q11 region, because biparental alleles contribute to the region in our patient. (+info)