(25/1138) A population-based study of the clinical expression of the hemochromatosis gene.
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Hereditary hemochromatosis is associated with homozygosity for the C282Y mutation in the hemochromatosis (HFE) gene on chromosome 6, elevated serum transferrin saturation, and excess iron deposits throughout the body. To assess the prevalence and clinical expression of the HFE gene, we conducted a population-based study in Busselton, Australia. In 1994, we obtained blood samples for the determination of serum transferrin saturation and ferritin levels and the presence or absence of the C282Y mutation and the H63D mutation (which may contribute to increased hepatic iron levels) in 3011 unrelated white adults. We evaluated all subjects who had persistently elevated transferrin-saturation values (45 percent or higher) or were homozygous for the C282Y mutation. We recommended liver biopsy for subjects with serum ferritin levels of 300 ng per milliliter or higher. The subjects were followed for up to four years. RESULTS: Sixteen of the subjects (0.5 percent) were homozygous for the C282Y mutation, and 424 (14.1 percent) were heterozygous. The serum transferrin saturation was 45 percent or higher in 15 of the 16 who were homozygous; in 1 subject it was 43 percent. Four of the homozygous subjects had previously been given a diagnosis of hemochromatosis, and 12 had not. Seven of these 12 patients had elevated serum ferritin levels in 1994; 6 of the 7 had further increases in 1998, and 1 had a decrease, although the value remained elevated. The serum ferritin levels in the four other homozygous patients remained in the normal range. Eleven of the 16 homozygous subjects underwent liver biopsy; 3 had hepatic fibrosis, and 1, who had a history of excessive alcohol consumption, had cirrhosis and mild microvesicular steatosis. Eight of the 16 homozygous subjects had clinical findings that were consistent with the presence of hereditary hemochromatosis, such as hepatomegaly, skin pigmentation, and arthritis. CONCLUSIONS: In a population of white adults of northern European ancestry, 0.5 percent were homozygous for the C282Y mutation in the HFE gene. However, only half of those who were homozygous had clinical features of hemochromatosis, and one quarter had serum ferritin levels that remained normal over a four-year period. (+info)
(26/1138) Hereditary hemochromatosis in adults without pathogenic mutations in the hemochromatosis gene.
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Hereditary hemochromatosis in adults is usually characterized by mutations in the HFE gene on the short arm of chromosome 6. Most patients have a substitution of tyrosine for cysteine at position 282 (C282Y). We studied a large family from Italy that includes persons who have a hereditary iron-overload condition indistinguishable from hemochromatosis but without apparent pathogenic mutations in the HFE gene. We performed biochemical, histologic, and genetic studies of 53 living members of the family, including microsatellite analysis of chromosome 6 and direct sequencing of the HFE gene. RESULTS: Of the 53 family members, 15 had abnormal serum ferritin levels, values for transferrin saturation that were higher than 50 percent, or both. Thirteen of the 15 had elevated body iron levels, diagnosed on the basis of the clinical evaluation and liver biopsy, and underwent iron-removal therapy. The other two, both children, did not undergo liver biopsy or iron-removal therapy. None of the 15 members had the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene; 5 of the 15 (as well as 5 healthy relatives) had another mutation of this gene, a substitution of aspartate for histidine at position 63, but none were homozygous for it. No other mutations were found after sequencing of the entire HFE gene for all family members. Microsatellite analysis showed no linkage of the hemochromatosis phenotype with the short arm of chromosome 6, the site of the HFE gene. CONCLUSIONS: Hereditary hemochromatosis can occur in adults who do not have pathogenic mutations in the hemochromatosis gene. (+info)
(27/1138) A neurological disease caused by an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the TATA-binding protein gene: a new polyglutamine disease?
To investigate whether the expansion of CAG repeats of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) gene is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, we have screened 118 patients with various forms of neurological disease and identified a sporadic-onset patient with unique neurologic symptoms consisting of ataxia and intellectual deterioration associated with de novo expansion of the CAG repeat of the TBP gene. The mutant TBP with an expanded polyglutamine stretch (63 glutamines) was demonstrated to be expressed in lymphoblastoid cell lines at a level comparable with that of wild-type TBP. The CAG repeat of the TBP gene consists of impure CAG repeat and the de novo expansion involves partial duplication of the CAG repeat. The present study provides new insights into sporadic-onset trinucleotide repeat diseases that involve de novo CAG repeat expansion. (+info)
(28/1138) Chromosome abnormalities in a referred population for suspected chromosomal aberrations: a report of 4117 cases.
A cytogenetic study was performed on 4,117 Korean patients referred for suspected chromosomal abnormalities. Chromosome aberrations were identified in 17.5% of the referred cases. The most common autosomal abnormality was Down syndrome and Turner syndrome in abnormalities of sex chromosome. The proportions of different karyotypes in Down syndrome (trisomy 21 92.5%, translocation 5.1%, mosaic 2.4%) were similar to those reported in other countries. However, it was different in Turner syndrome (45, X 28.1%, mosaic 50.8%, 46, X, del (Xq) 4.4%, 46, X, i (Xq) 16.7%), in which proportions of mosaics and isochromosome, 46, X, i(Xq), were higher than those reported in other countries. In structural chromosome aberrations of autosome, translocation was the most common (43.6%), and duplication (21.3%), deletion (14.4%), marker chromosome (7.9%) and ring chromosome (4.0%) followed in order of frequency. Rates of several normal variant karyotypes were also described. Inversion of chromosome 9 was observed in 1.7% of total referred cases. (+info)
(29/1138) An interstitial deletion of 6p24-p25 proximal to the FKHL7 locus and including AP-2alpha that affects anterior eye chamber development.
The FKHL7 gene has been implicated in the pathogenesis of glaucoma/autosomal dominant iridogoniodysgenesis (IGDA) (IRID1). This has been supported by mutations in some glaucoma and IGDA patients and the development of anterior eye chamber anomalies in patients with 6p deletions affecting the 6p25 region. We report a case with anterior eye chamber anomalies and an interstitial deletion of 6p24-p25 that does not include the FKHL7 gene, suggesting the possible additional involvement of another locus, within 6p24-6p25, in anterior eye chamber development. A candidate gene is AP-2alpha, which is contained within the deleted segment and plays a role in anterior eye chamber development. (+info)
(30/1138) Human leukocyte antigen class I gene mutations in cervical cancer.
BACKGROUND: Various mechanisms contribute to the loss of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I expression that is frequently observed in cancers. Although some single allele losses have been ascribed to mutations in HLA class I genes, direct evidence for this phenomenon in vivo is still lacking. Thus, we investigated whether HLA class I gene mutations could account for the loss of allele-specific expression in cervical carcinomas. METHODS: We used polymerase chain reaction-based techniques, including sequencing, oligonucleotide hybridization, and microsatellite analysis, to identify HLA class I gene defects in two tumor-derived cell lines and to confirm the presence of these defects in the original tumors. RESULTS: In one tumor, in exon 2 of the HLA-B15 gene, a four-nucleotide insertion resulted in a stop codon in exon 3. In the other tumor, in two duplicated copies of the HLA-A24 gene, single-point mutations resulted in stop codons in exons 2 and 5. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report of HLA class I gene mutations identified in primary tumors that lead to loss of allelic expression in tumor cells. Such tumor-specific mutations may permit the cell to escape HLA class I-restricted cytotoxic T-cell responses. (+info)
(31/1138) A human homolog of Drosophila warts tumor suppressor, h-warts, localized to mitotic apparatus and specifically phosphorylated during mitosis.
We identified a human homolog of Drosophila warts tumor suppressor gene, termed h-warts, which was mapped at chromosome 6q24-25.1. The h-warts protein has a serine/threonine kinase domain and is localized to centrosomes in interphase cells. However, it becomes localized to the mitotic apparatus, including spindle pole bodies, mitotic spindle, and midbody, in a highly dynamic manner during mitosis. Furthermore, h-warts is specifically phosphorylated in cells at mitotic phase, most likely by Cdc2 kinase. These findings suggest that h-warts functions as a component of the mitotic apparatus and is involved in proper progression of mitosis. (+info)
(32/1138) Linkage of inflammatory bowel disease to human chromosome 6p.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by a chronic relapsing intestinal inflammation. IBD is subdivided into Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis phenotypes. Given the immunologic dysregulation in IBD, the human-leukocyte-antigen region on chromosome 6p is of significant interest. Previous association and linkage analysis has provided conflicting evidence as to the existence of an IBD-susceptibility locus in this region. Here we report on a two-stage linkage and association analysis of both a basic population of 353 affected sibling pairs (ASPs) and an extension of this population to 428 white ASPs of northern European extraction. Twenty-eight microsatellite markers on chromosome 6 were genotyped. A peak multipoint LOD score of 4.2 was observed, at D6S461, for the IBD phenotype. A transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) result of P=.006 was detected for D6S426 in the basic population and was confirmed in the extended cohort (P=.004; 97 vs. 56 transmissions). The subphenotypes of Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis, and mixed IBD contributed equally to this linkage, suggesting a general role for the chromosome 6 locus in IBD. Analysis of five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the TNFA and LTA genes did not reveal evidence for association of these important candidate genes with IBD. In summary, we provide firm linkage evidence for an IBD-susceptibility locus on chromosome 6p and demonstrate that TNFA and LTA are unlikely to be susceptibility loci for IBD. (+info)