(65/9550) Splanchnic tissues undergo hypoxic stress during whole body hyperthermia.
Exposure of conscious animals to environmental heat stress increases portal venous radical content. The nature of the observed heat stress-inducible radical molecules suggests that hyperthermia produces cellular hypoxic stress in liver and intestine. To investigate this hypothesis, conscious rats bearing in-dwelling portal venous and femoral artery catheters were exposed to normothermic or hyperthermic conditions. Blood gas levels were monitored during heat stress and for 24 h following heat exposure. Hyperthermia significantly increased arterial O2 saturation, splanchnic arterial-venous O2 difference, and venous PCO2, while decreasing venous O2 saturation and venous pH. One hour after heat exposure, liver glycogen levels were decreased approximately 20%. Two hours after heat exposure, the splanchnic arterial-venous O2 difference remained elevated in heat-stressed animals despite normal Tc. A second group of rats was exposed to similar conditions while receiving intra-arterial injections of the hypoxic cell marker [3H]misonidazole. Liver and intestine were biopsied, and [3H]misonidazole content was quantified. Heat stress increased tissue [3H]misonidazole retention 80% in the liver and 29% in the small intestine. Cellular [3H]misonidazole levels were significantly elevated in intestinal epithelial cells and liver zone 2 and 3 hepatocytes and Kupffer cells. This effect was most prominent in the proximal small intestine and small liver lobi. These data provide evidence that hyperthermia produces cellular hypoxia and metabolic stress in splanchnic tissues and suggest that cellular metabolic stress may contribute to radical generation during heat stress. (+info)
(66/9550) Postnatal maturation of carotid body and type I cell chemoreception in the rat.
The site of postnatal maturation of carotid body chemoreception is unclear. To test the hypothesis that maturation occurs synchronously in type I cells and the whole carotid body, the development of changes in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration responses to hypoxia, CO2, and combined challenges was studied with fluorescence microscopy in type I cells and compared with the development of carotid sinus nerve (CSN) responses recorded in vitro from term fetal to 3-wk animals. Type I cell responses to all challenges increased between 1 and 8 days and then remained constant, with no multiplicative O2-CO2 interaction at any age. The CSN response to hypoxia also matured by 8 days, but CSN responses to CO2 did not change significantly with age. Multiplicative O2-CO2 interaction occurred in the CSN response at 2-3 wk but not in younger groups. We conclude that type I cell maturation underlies maturation of the CSN response to hypoxia. However, because development of responses to CO2 and combined hypoxia-CO2 challenges differed between type I cells and the CSN, responses to these stimuli must mature at other, unidentified sites within the developing carotid body. (+info)
(67/9550) Studies on basidiospore development in Schizophyllum commune.
The time required for synthesis of the spore components and the effect of different environmental conditions on basidiospore production were studied in the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune. Both exogenous glucose and storage materials were used in the synthesis of spore components, which took 40 to 45 h to complete. A temperature of 30 degrees C, the presence of 5% CO2, a continuous supply of glucose, or a lack of exogenous glucose, had no effect on the rate of spore production. Light, however, was required for sporulation. Darkness inhibited sporulation between karyogamy and the initiation of meiosis: complete inhibition occurred after 48 h in the dark. Spores were produced 5 h after release from dark inhibition. (+info)
(68/9550) Isolation and characterization of CA XIV, a novel membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase from mouse kidney.
Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is involved in various physiological processes such as acid-base balance and transport of carbon dioxide and ions. In this study, we have succeeded in the isolation of a novel CA from the mouse kidney by use of the signal sequence trap method. It is a 337-amino acid polypeptide with a calculated molecular mass of 37.5 kDa, consisting of a putative amino-terminal signal sequence, a CA domain, a transmembrane domain, and a short hydrophilic carboxyl terminus, which we designated CA XIV. The CA domain of CA XIV is highly homologous with those of known CAs, especially extracellular CAs including CA XII, IX, VI, and IV. The expression study of an epitope-tagged protein has suggested that CA XIV is located on the plasma membrane. When expressed in COS-7 cells, CA XIV exhibits CA activity that is predominantly associated with the membrane fraction. By Northern blot analysis, the gene expression of CA XIV is most abundant in the kidney and heart, followed by the skeletal muscle, brain, lung, and liver. In situ hybridization has revealed that, in the kidney, the gene is expressed intensely in the proximal convoluted tubule, which is the major segment for bicarbonate reabsorption and also in the outer border of the inner stripe of the outer medulla. In conclusion, we have cloned a functional cDNA encoding a novel membrane-bound CA. This study will bring new insights into our understanding of carbon dioxide metabolism and acid-base balance. (+info)
(69/9550) Down-regulation of nitric oxide production by ibuprofen in human volunteers.
Ibuprofen has been shown in vitro to modulate production of nitric oxide (NO), a mediator of sepsis-induced hypotension. We sought to determine whether ibuprofen alters NO production and, thereby, vascular tone, in normal and endotoxin-challenged volunteers. Techniques for detecting NO were validated in 17 subjects infused with sodium nitroprusside, a NO donor. Then, endotoxin (4 ng/kg) or saline (vehicle alone) was administered in a single-blinded, crossover design to 12 other subjects randomized to receive either ibuprofen (2400 mg p.o.) or a placebo. Endotoxin decreased mean arterial pressure (MAP; P =.002) and increased alveolar NO flow rates (P =.04) and urinary excretion of nitrite and nitrate (P =.07). In both endotoxemic and normal subjects, ibuprofen blunted the small fall in MAP associated with bed rest (P =.005) and decreased alveolar NO flow rates (P =.03) and urinary excretion of nitrite and nitrate (P =.02). However, ibuprofen had no effect on the decrease in MAP caused by endotoxin, although it blocked NO production to the point of disrupting the normal relationship between increases in exhaled NO flow rate and decreases in MAP (P =.002). These are the first in vivo data to demonstrate that ibuprofen down-regulates NO in humans. Ibuprofen impaired the NO response to bed rest, producing a small rise in blood pressure. Although ibuprofen also interfered with the ability of endotoxin to induce NO production, it had no effect on the fall in blood pressure, suggesting that the hemodynamic response to endotoxin is not completely dependent on NO under these conditions. (+info)
(70/9550) Heat energy for growing goats and sheep grazing different pastures in the summer.
Angora goat, Spanish goat, and Suffolk x Rambouillet sheep wethers (20 of each type; 30.4+/-.57, 31.3+/-.93, and 32.4+/-1.08 kg BW for Angora goats, Spanish goats, and sheep, respectively) were used to investigate influences of animal type and two grass-based pasture treatments on heat energy during summer grazing (mid-August through September in Oklahoma). The improved pasture treatment consisted of .7-ha paddocks primarily of Old World bluestem and johnsongrass, whereas the native pasture treatment entailed 10.8-ha paddocks dominated by big and little bluestems and indiangrass. Grasses were 95 to 100% of diets for the improved pasture treatment and 71 to 95% for the native pasture treatment; forbs were 2 to 25%, and shrubs were less than 4% of diets for the native pasture treatment. Metabolizable energy intake was similar (P > . 10) between pasture treatments but differed (P <.01) among animal types: 79, 99, and 113 kcal/(kg(.75) BW.d) for Angora goats, Spanish goats, and sheep, respectively; SE 7.1. Heat energy estimated via CO2 entry rate was affected by pasture treatment ( P = .08) and animal type (P < .001): improved pasture treatment 109, 132, and 151 kcal/(kg(.75) BW.d); native pasture treatment 126, 138, and 163 kcal/(kg(.75) BW.d) for Angora goats, Spanish goats, and sheep, respectively. Likewise, daylight grazing time was greater (P = .04) for the native than for the improved pasture treatment and differed (P < .01) among animal types: improved pasture treatment 5.3, 4.7, and 6.7 h; native pasture treatment 6.0, 5.7, and 8.1 h for Angora goats, Spanish goats, and sheep, respectively. In conclusion, heat energy during summer grazing of grass-based paddocks was less for goats than for sheep, and animal type can affect the increase in heat energy as energy intake and grazing time increase. (+info)
(71/9550) Hyperproduction of tryptophan by Corynebacterium glutamicum with the modified pentose phosphate pathway.
A classically derived tryptophan-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum strain was recently significantly improved both by plasmid-mediated amplification of the genes for the rate-limiting enzymes in the terminal pathways and by construction of a plasmid stabilization system so that it produced more tryptophan. This engineered strain, KY9218 carrying pKW9901, produced 50 g of tryptophan per liter from sucrose after 80 h in fed-batch cultivation without antibiotic pressure. Analysis of carbon balances showed that at the late stage of the fermentation, tryptophan yield decreased with a concomitant increase in CO2 yield, suggesting a transition in the distribution of carbon flow from aromatic biosynthesis toward the tricarboxylic acid cycle via glycolysis. To circumvent this transition by increasing the supply of erythrose 4-phosphate, a direct precursor of aromatic biosynthesis, the transketolase gene of C. glutamicum was coamplified in the engineered strain by using low- and high-copy-number plasmids which were compatible with the resident plasmid pKW9901. The presence of the gene in low copy numbers contributed to improvement of tryptophan yield, especially at the late stage, and led to accumulation of more tryptophan (57 g/liter) than did its absence, while high-copy-number amplification of the gene resulted in a tryptophan production level even lower than that resulting from the absence of the gene due to reduced growth and sugar consumption. In order to assemble all the cloned genes onto a low-copy-number plasmid, the high-copy-number origin of pKW9901 was replaced with the low-copy-number one, generating low-copy-number plasmid pSW9911, and the transketolase gene was inserted to yield pIK9960. The pSW9911-carrying producer showed almost the same fermentation profiles as the pKW9901 carrier in fed-batch cultivation without antibiotic pressure. Under the same culture conditions, however, the pIK9960 carrier achieved a final tryptophan titer of 58 g/liter, which represented a 15% enhancement over the titers achieved by the pKW9901 and pSW9911 carriers. (+info)
(72/9550) Optimization of simultaneous chemical and biological mineralization of perchloroethylene.
Optimization of the simultaneous chemical and biological mineralization of perchloroethylene (PCE) by modified Fenton's reagent and Xanthobacter flavus was investigated by using a central composite rotatable experimental design. Concentrations of PCE, hydrogen peroxide, and ferrous iron and the microbial cell number were set as variables. Percent mineralization of PCE to CO2 was investigated as a response. A second-order, quadratic response surface model was generated and fit the data adequately, with a correlation coefficient of 0.72. Analysis of the results showed that the PCE concentration had no significant effect within the tested boundaries of the model, while the other variables, hydrogen peroxide and iron concentrations and cell number, were significant at alpha = 0.05 for the mineralization of PCE. The 14C radiotracer studies showed that the simultaneous chemical and biological reactions increased the extent of mineralization of PCE by more than 10% over stand-alone Fenton reactions. (+info)