(1/380) The contribution of adjacent subunits to the active sites of D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase.
D-3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH) from Escherichia coli is allosterically inhibited by L-serine, the end product of its metabolic pathway. Previous results have shown that inhibition by serine has a large effect on Vmax and only a small or negligible effect on Km. PGDH is thus classified as a V-type allosteric enzyme. In this study, the active site of PGDH has been studied by site-directed mutagenesis to assess the role of certain residues in substrate binding and catalysis. These consist of a group of cationic residues (Arg-240, Arg-60, Arg-62, Lys-39, and Lys-141') that potentially form an electrostatic environment for the binding of the negatively charged substrate, as well as the only tryptophan residue found in PGDH and which fits into a hydrophobic pocket immediately adjacent to the active site histidine residue. Interestingly, Trp-139' and Lys-141' are part of the polypeptide chain of the subunit that is adjacent to the active site. The results of mutating these residues show that Arg-240, Arg-60, Arg-62, and Lys-141' play distinct roles in the binding of the substrate to the active site. Mutants of Trp-139' show that this residue may play a role in stabilizing the catalytic center of the enzyme. Furthermore, these mutants appear to have a significant effect on the cooperativity of serine inhibition and suggest a possible role for Trp-139' in the cooperative interactions between subunits. (+info)
(2/380) Molecular characterization of a flagellar export locus of Helicobacter pylori.
Motility of Helicobacter species has been shown to be essential for successful colonization of the host. We have investigated the organization of a flagellar export locus in Helicobacter pylori. A 7-kb fragment of the H. pylori CCUG 17874 genome was cloned and sequenced, revealing an operon comprising an open reading frame of unknown function (ORF03), essential housekeeping genes (ileS and murB), flagellar export genes (fliI and fliQ), and a homolog to a gene implicated in virulence factor transport in other pathogens (virB11). A promoter for this operon, showing similarity to the Escherichia coli sigma70 consensus, was identified by primer extension. Cotranscription of the genes in the operon was demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR, and transcription of virB11, fliI, fliQ, and murB was detected in human or mouse biopsies obtained from infected hosts. The genetic organization of this locus was conserved in a panel of H. pylori clinical isolates. Engineered fliI and fliQ mutant strains were completely aflagellate and nonmotile, whereas a virB11 mutant still produced flagella. The fliI and fliQ mutant strains produced reduced levels of flagellin and the hook protein FlgE. Production of OMP4, a member of the outer membrane protein family identified in H. pylori 26695, was reduced in both the virB11 mutant and the fliI mutant, suggesting related functions of the virulence factor export protein (VirB11) and the flagellar export component (FliI). (+info)
(3/380) Regulation of alginate biosynthesis in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae.
Both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the phytopathogen P. syringae produce the exopolysaccharide alginate. However, the environmental signals that trigger alginate gene expression in P. syringae are different from those in P. aeruginosa with copper being a major signal in P. syringae. In P. aeruginosa, the alternate sigma factor encoded by algT (sigma22) and the response regulator AlgR1 are required for transcription of algD, a gene which encodes a key enzyme in the alginate biosynthetic pathway. In the present study, we cloned and characterized the gene encoding AlgR1 from P. syringae. The deduced amino acid sequence of AlgR1 from P. syringae showed 86% identity to its P. aeruginosa counterpart. Sequence analysis of the region flanking algR1 in P. syringae revealed the presence of argH, algZ, and hemC in an arrangement virtually identical to that reported in P. aeruginosa. An algR1 mutant, P. syringae FF5.32, was defective in alginate production but could be complemented when algR1 was expressed in trans. The algD promoter region in P. syringae (PsalgD) was also characterized and shown to diverge significantly from the algD promoter in P. aeruginosa. Unlike P. aeruginosa, algR1 was not required for the transcription of algD in P. syringae, and PsalgD lacked the consensus sequence recognized by AlgR1. However, both the algD and algR1 upstream regions in P. syringae contained the consensus sequence recognized by sigma22, suggesting that algT is required for transcription of both genes. (+info)
(4/380) A novel NDP-6-deoxyhexosyl-4-ulose reductase in the pathway for the synthesis of thymidine diphosphate-D-fucose.
The serotype-specific polysaccharide antigen of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 (serotype b) consists of D-fucose and L-rhamnose. Thymidine diphosphate (dTDP)-D-fucose is the activated nucleotide sugar form of D-fucose, which has been identified as a constituent of structural polysaccharides in only a few bacteria. In this paper, we show that three dTDP-D-fucose synthetic enzymes are encoded by genes in the gene cluster responsible for the synthesis of serotype b-specific polysaccharide in A. actinomycetemcomitans. The first and second steps of the dTDP-D-fucose synthetic pathway are catalyzed by D-glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase and dTDP-D-glucose 4,6-dehydratase, which are encoded by rmlA and rmlB in the gene cluster, respectively. These two reactions are common to the well studied dTDP-L-rhamnose synthetic pathway. However, the enzyme catalyzing the last step of the dTDP-D-fucose synthetic pathway has never been reported. We identified the fcd gene encoding a dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose reductase. After purifying the three enzymes, their enzymatic activities were analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. In addition, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis and gas-liquid chromatography analysis proved that the fcd gene product converts dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose to dTDP-D-fucose. Moreover, kinetic analysis of the enzyme indicated that the Km values for dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose and NADPH are 97.3 and 28.7 microM, respectively, and that the enzyme follows the sequential mechanism. This paper is the first report on the dTDP-D-fucose synthetic pathway and dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose reductase. (+info)
(5/380) Purification and characterization of D-glucosaminitol dehydrogenase from Agrobacterium radiobacter.
D-Glucosaminitol dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the conversion of D-glucosaminitol to 3-keto-D-glucosaminitol, was purified to apparent homogeneity from extracts of Agrobacterium radiobacter. This organism has constitutively depressed levels of the enzyme but expression of the enzyme is induced by addition of D-glucosamine to the medium. Purification included ammonium sulfate fractionation and chromatography on columns of DEAE-Sephacel, Octyl-Sepharose CL-4B, and Cellulofine. The purified enzyme migrated as a single band, coinciding with dehydrogenase activities specific for D-glucosaminitol and ethanol, when electrophoresed on a 7.5% polyacrylamide gel at pH 8.0. Electrophoresis on a 12.5% PAGE in the presence of 1% SDS also yielded a single band. The enzyme had an apparent molecular mass of 79 kDa, as measured by the pattern of elution from a column of Cellulofine. The results indicated that the enzyme was a dimer of identical (or nearly identical) subunits of 39.5 kDa. D-Glucosaminitol dehydrogenase required NAD+ as a cofactor and used ethanol as the preferred substrate, as well as aliphatic alcohols with 2 to 4 carbon atoms, D-glucosaminitol, D-glucosaminate, DL-allothreonine, glycerol, and erythritol as additional substrates. In 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 9.0) at 25 degrees C, the K(m) for D-glucosaminitol, ethanol, and NAD+ were 2.2, 2.0, and 0.08 mM, respectively. The enzyme had a pH optimum of 10 for D-glucosaminitol and 8.5 for ethanol. The enzyme lost substantial activity when treated with pyrazole, with certain reagents that react with sulfhydryl groups and with Zn2+ ion. The various results together suggest that the enzyme exploits different amino acid residues for the dehydrogenation of ethanol and of D-glucosaminitol. (+info)
(6/380) Characterization of dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose 3,5-epimerase and dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose reductase, required for dTDP-L-rhamnose biosynthesis in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2.
The thymidine diphosphate-L-rhamnose biosynthesis pathway is required for assembly of surface glycoconjugates in a growing list of bacterial pathogens, making this pathway a potential therapeutic target. However, the terminal reactions have not been characterized. To complete assignment of the reactions, the four enzymes (RmlABCD) that constitute the pathway in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 were overexpressed. The purified RmlC and D enzymes together catalyze the terminal two steps involving NAD(P)H-dependent formation of dTDP-L-rhamnose from dTDP-6-deoxy-D-xylo-4-hexulose. RmlC was assigned as the thymidine diphosphate-4-dehydrorhamnose 3,5-epimerase by showing its activity to be NAD(P)H-independent. Spectrofluorometric and radiolabeling experiments were used to demonstrate the ability of RmlC to catalyze the formation of dTDP-6-deoxy-L-lyxo-4-hexulose from dTDP-6-deoxy-D-xylo-4-hexulose. Under reaction conditions, RmlC converted approximately 3% of its substrate to product. RmlD was unequivocally identified as the thymidine diphosphate-4-dehydrorhamnose reductase. The reductase property of RmlD was shown by equilibrium analysis and its ability to enable efficient biosynthesis of dTDP-L-rhamnose, even in the presence of low amounts of dTDP-6-deoxy-L-lyxo-4-hexulose. Comparison of 23 known and predicted RmlD sequences identified several conserved amino acid residues, especially the serine-tyrosine-lysine catalytic triad, characteristic for members of the reductase/epimerase/dehydrogenase protein superfamily. In conclusion, RmlD is a novel member of this protein superfamily. (+info)
(7/380) Interstrain variation of the polysaccharide B biosynthesis locus of Bacteroides fragilis: characterization of the region from strain 638R.
The sequence and analysis of the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis locus, PS B2, of Bacteroides fragilis 638R are described, and the sequence is compared with that of the PS B1 biosynthesis locus of B. fragilis NCTC 9343. Two genes of the region, wcgD and wcgC, are shown by complementation to encode a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase and a UDP-N-acetylmannosamine dehydrogenase, respectively. (+info)
(8/380) PCR identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and direct detection in clinical samples from cystic fibrosis patients.
This report describes a PCR primer pair that targets the algD GDP mannose gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and produces a specific 520-bp PCR product useful for P. aeruginosa identification. This PCR assay was tested with 182 isolates of P. aeruginosa and 20 isolates of other bacterial species, and demonstrated 100% specificity and sensitivity. The test was also able to detect P. aeruginosa directly in clinical samples such as sputum or throat swabs obtained from cystic fibrosis patients. The combination of this primer with a universal bacterial primer, acting as a control to assess DNA quality in the sample, resulted in a robust PCR method that can be used for rapid P. aeruginosa detection. (+info)