Results of examination of specimens of plant or animal origin for various mycotoxins are presented. Analyses for aflatoxins and ochratoxins were most frequently requested, usually on the basis of visible mouldiness. Aflatoxin B1 was found in one of 100 specimens at a level of 50 ppb in a sample of alfalfa brome hay. Ochratoxin A was detected in seven of 95 specimens comprising six samples of wheat at levels between 30 and 6000 ppb and one sample of hay at a level of 30 ppb. An overall detection rate of 4.2% involving significant levels of potent mycotoxins suggests that acute or chronic mycotoxicoses may occur in farm livestock or poultry more frequently than presently diagnosied. (+info)
(2/7810) Lead and mercury residues in kidney and liver of Canadian slaughter animals.
Liver and kidney samples were collected from Canadian slaughter animals during the winter of 1973-1974. A total of 256 samples were analyzed for lead. Mean lead levels of 1.02 ppm in poultry liver, 1.04 ppm in bovine liver, 1.02 ppm in bovine kidney, 0.73 ppm in pork liver and 0.85 ppm in pork kidney were found. A total of 265 samples were analyzed for mercury. Mean mercury levels of 0.003 ppm in poultry liver, 0.007 ppm in bovine liver, 0.008 ppm in bovine kidney, 0.001 ppm in pork liver and 0.013 ppm in pork kidney were found. All levels detected were below the Canadian official tolerance of 2 ppm for lead and administrative tolerance of 0.5 ppm for mercury. (+info)
(3/7810) The epizootiology and pathogenesis of thyroid hyperplasia in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Lake Ontario.
The thyroid glands of coho salmon collected at different stages of their anadromous migration exhibited progressive and extensive hyperplasia and hypertrophy. The incidence of overt nodule formation rose from 5% in fish collected in August to 24% in fish collected in October. The histological picture of the goiters was similar to that found in thiourea-treated teleosts and thiouracil-treated mammals. There was a concomitant, significant decrease in serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine values between September and October (thyroxine, 1.0+/-0.3 mug/100 ml and 0.4 mug/100 ml in September and October, respectively; triiodothyronine, 400.3+/-51.6 ng/100 ml and 80.2 ng/100 ml in September and October, respectively) and marked hypertrophy and hyperplasia of thyrotrophs. These data indicate a progressive hypothyroid condition which, although it may be linked to iodide deficiency, may well be enhanced by other environmental factors. The evidence for involvement of other factors is discussed. (+info)
(4/7810) 'Home hypertension': exploring the inverse white coat response.
BACKGROUND: The classical 'white coat response' to blood pressure measurement has been studied thoroughly. However, little is known about patients showing a reverse pattern, i.e. who have lower blood pressure readings at the clinic than outside healthcare facilities. AIM: To estimate the proportion of patients whose blood pressure levels as determined by self-measurements at home are higher than those taken at the clinic and to explore possible associations with demographic, clinical, and psychological variables. METHOD: Patients consecutively attending (n = 214) an academic family medicine department in Toronto, Canada, were eligible. Subjects aged below 16 years and those on psychotropic or blood pressure-lowering agents were excluded. The clinic-home blood pressure difference (CHBPD) was calculated for each participating subject by subtracting home blood pressure from clinic blood pressure. Those who had negative values were compared with the rest of the sample. RESULTS: A considerable proportion of patients had lower blood pressure at the clinic than at home (systolic, 34.6%; diastolic, 23.8%). These subjects did not differ from the rest of the sample with regard to age, sex, levels of education attained, immigration status, body mass index, experience of current symptoms, blood pressure levels, or psychological distress. However, in patients with a 'negative CHBPD', i.e. lower blood pressure at the clinic than at home, readings taken by an automatic, self-inflating device when still at the clinic were higher than in the rest of the sample. CONCLUSION: The results point to measurement bias being at least partly responsible for higher blood pressure readings outside the clinic. Automatic measurement devices used for self/home blood pressure measurement seem to cause an alerting reaction analogous to the well-described 'white coat response'. (+info)
(5/7810) A comparative analysis of surveyors from six hospital accreditation programmes and a consideration of the related management issues.
PURPOSE: To gather data on how accreditors manage surveyors, to compare these data and to offer them to the accreditors for improvement and to the scientific community for knowledge of the accreditation process and reinforcement of the credibility of these processes. DATA SOURCE: The data were gathered with the aid of a questionnaire sent to all accreditors participating in the study. RESULTS: An important finding in this comparative study is the different contractual relationships that exist between the accreditors and their surveyors. CONCLUSION: Surveyors around the world share many common features in terms of careers, training, work history and expectations. These similarities probably arise from the objectives of the accreditors who try to provide a developmental process to their clients rather than an 'inspection'. (+info)
(6/7810) Dilemmas of medical ethics in the Canadian Penitentiary Service.
There is a unique hospital in Canada-and perhaps in the world-because it is built outside prison walls and it exists specifically for the psychiatric treatment of prisoners. It is on the one hand a hospital and on the other a prison. Moreover it has to provide the same quality and standard of care which is expected of a hospital associated with a university. From the time the hospital was established moral dilemmas appeared which were concerned with conflicts between the medical and custodial treatment of prisoners, and also with the attitudes of those having the status of prisoner-patient. Dr Roy describes these dilemmas and attitudes, and in particular a special conference which was convened to discuss them. Not only doctors and prison officials took part in this meeting but also general practitioners, theologians, philosophers, ex-prisoners, judges, lawyers, Members of Parliament and Senators. This must have been a unique occasion and Dr Roy's description may provide the impetus to examine these prison problems in other settings. (+info)
(7/7810) Injection site survey in Canadian-fed cattle: spring 1997.
A 2nd injection site survey was conducted during the spring of 1997 in Canadian-fed beef. The prevalence of lesions was 13.3% in top butts, 23.1% in blades, 9.1% in eye of rounds, 7.5% in outside rounds, and 1.4% in inside rounds. Losses were $8.05/head processed or $17 million annually. (+info)
(8/7810) Canada's "disasters-R-us" medical platoon a hit in Honduras.
The Canadian Forces Disaster Assistance Response Team did not take long to adapt to the medical needs of 90,000 survivors of Hurricane Mitch last November. (+info)