(73/13421) Hepatic capillariasis in children: report of 3 cases in Brazil.
Capillaria hepatica is a helminth that may cause an extremely rare condition of parasitic hepatitis. Only 29 cases have been published, 2 of them in Brazil. We report here 3 cases of children in Brazil with massive hepatic capillariasis who presented the characteristic triad of this type of infection, i.e., persistent fever, hepatomegaly, and eosinophilia. The diagnosis was made by liver biopsy. All children responded well after treatment with thiabendazole (case 1), albendazole (case 3), and albendazole in combination with a corticoid (case 2). Case 1 has been followed-up for 24 years, an event not previously reported in the literature. (+info)
(74/13421) Serum antibodies to human papillomavirus 16 proteins in women from Brazil with invasive cervical carcinoma.
Serum samples from 194 cases and 217 controls participating in a case-control study of invasive cervical cancer in Brazil were examined for antibodies to human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 virus-like particles (VLPs) by ELISA. The prevalence of antibody in cases and controls was 47.4 versus 24.4% (P < 0.001). The prevalence was higher in women who had HPV-16 DNA in the genital tract (54.2%) than in those with other HPVs (36.8%) or no HPVs (44.8%), but the differences were not statistically significant. Among cases and controls, HPV-16 VLP antibodies were associated with a greater number of lifetime sexual partners (chi2 for trend, P < 0.001). Among controls, age was inversely associated with HPV-16 VLP seroreactivity (chi2 for trend, P = 0.019). The sera were previously tested for antibodies to HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins; there was no correlation between antibody titers to HPV-16 E6 or E7 and VLPs. The HPV-16 serological assays were compared as screening tests for invasive cervical cancer. The sensitivity and specificity estimates were 47.4 and 75.6% for HPV-16 VLP serology, 63.4 and 89.9% for either HPV-16 E6 or E7 serology, and 53.6 and 93.6% for high titers of either HPV-16 E6 or E7 or VLP antibodies. The utility of HPV-16 VLP ELISA as a screening test for invasive cervical cancer is limited by a high seroprevalence in women with probable prior exposure to HVP 16 but without disease. (+info)
(75/13421) In vivo efficacy of mefloquine for the treatment of Falciparum malaria in Brazil.
Ninety-four patients with falciparum malaria were treated with mefloquine (1000-mg single dose) and remained hospitalized in a malaria-free area for a minimum of 28 days. There was 1 parasitologic failure (grade I resistance [RI]) for a 99% cure rate (95% confidence interval, 94.2%-99.7%). Mean parasite clearance time by thick smear was 45.7 h (SD, 11.4 h). The subject in whom therapy failed had a parasite clearance time (71 h) >2 SD above the population mean. His plasma mefloquine level 48 h after administration was lower (578 ng/mL) than the range of levels from 8 randomly selected cured subjects (834-2360 ng/mL). The IC50 to mefloquine for the recrudescent strain of the RI failure was in the upper 90th percentile of IC50 values from 30 cured subjects. These results show a high mefloquine cure rate but document the onset and mechanism of the emergence of resistance. (+info)
(76/13421) Toxoplasma gondii infection in Brazilian domestic outpatient cats.
The occurrence of Toxoplasma antibodies in domestic outpatient cats in the city of Sao Paulo was evaluated using the indirect immunofluorescence assay. A total of 248 blood samples obtained from male and female cats seen at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at the University of Sao Paulo between February 1996 and January 1997 were tested. Of these, 17.7% were positive, with a 64 titer being detected in most animals. The frequence of Toxoplasma antibodies was significantly higher in older cats, those fed raw meat and those with free access to the outdoor environment. There was no significant difference in reactivity between males and females. We conclude that diet and free access to the outdoor environment were equally important as predisposing factors to the risk of Toxoplasma infection. (+info)
(77/13421) In vitro evaluation of erythromycin in chloroquine resistant brazilian P. falciparum freshly isolates: modulating effect and antimalarial activity evidence.
Erythromycin, a reversal agent in multidrug-resistant cancer, was assayed in chloroquine resistance modulation. The in vitro microtechnique for drug susceptibility was employed using two freshly isolates of Plasmodium falciparum from North of Brazil. The antimalarial effect of the drug was confirmed, with an IC50 estimates near the usual antimicrobial therapy concentration, and a significant statistical modulating action was observed for one isolate. (+info)
(78/13421) Evaluation of guidelines for emergency triage assessment and treatment in developing countries.
AIM: To evaluate performance of a simplified algorithm and treatment instructions for emergency triage assessment and treatment (ETAT) of children presenting to hospital in developing countries. METHODS: All infants aged 7 days to 5 years presenting to an accident and emergency department were simultaneously triaged and assessed by a nurse and a senior paediatrician. Nurse ETAT assessment was compared to standard emergency advanced paediatric life support (APLS) assessment by the paediatrician. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were calculated and appropriateness of nurse treatments was evaluated. RESULTS: The ETAT algorithm as used by nurses identified 731/3837 patients (19.05%); 98 patients (2.6%) were classified as needing emergency treatment and 633 (16.5%) as needing priority assessment. Sensitivity was 96.7% with respect to APLS assessment, 91.7% with respect to all patients given priority by the paediatrician, and 85.7% with respect to patients ultimately admitted. Specificity was 90.6%, 91.0%, and 85.2%, respectively. Nurse administered treatment was appropriate in 94/102 (92.2%) emergency conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The ETAT algorithm and treatment instructions, when carried out by nurses after a short specific training period, performed well as a screening tool to identify priority cases and as a treatment guide for emergency conditions. (+info)
(79/13421) Analysis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 subtypes in EBV-associated lymphomas from Brazil and the United Kingdom.
EBNA-1 is the only viral protein consistently expressed in all cells latently infected by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). There is a high frequency of sequence variation within functionally important domains of EBNA-1, with five subtypes identified. Individuals may be infected with multiple EBV strains (classified according to EBNA-1 subtype), but Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) tumours carry a single subtype and exhibit some subtype preference. Subtype variation has also been related to geographical location. In the present study EBNA-1 polymorphisms were examined in a series of haematological malignancies from two distinct geographical regions, Brazil and the United Kingdom. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the carboxy-terminal region of EBNA-1 in 34 cases revealed six distinct sequences, some of which are novel. A new subtype, named V-Ala, was identified. EBNA-1 subtype in tumours differed markedly according to geographical location. In contrast to previous studies, we found evidence of EBNA-1 sequence variation within individual BL tumour samples. (+info)
(80/13421) Role of Anopheles (Kerteszia) bellator as malaria vector in southeastern Brazil (Diptera: Culicidae).
New research concerning Anopheles bellator in the southeast of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, are reported. Adult females of this mosquito showed remarkable endophily and endophagy which was even greater than An. cruzii. The epidemiological role of this anopheline as a malaria vector is discussed. (+info)