(65/13421) Frequency of islet cell autoantibodies (IA-2 and GAD) in young Brazilian type 1 diabetes patients.
Type 1 diabetes, as an autoimmune disease, presents several islet cell-specific autoantibodies such as islet cell antibody (ICA), anti-insulin, anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and the antibody (Ab) against tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-like protein known as ICA-512 (IA-2). In order to determine the frequency of the anti-GAD and anti-IA-2 autoantibodies in Brazilian type 1 diabetes patients we studied 35 diabetes mellitus (DM) type 1 patients with recent-onset disease (=12 months) and 37 type 1 diabetes patients with long-duration diabetes (>12 months) who were compared to 12 children with normal fasting glucose. Anti-GAD65 and anti-IA-2 autoantibodies were detected with commercial immunoprecipitation assays. The frequency of positive results in recent-onset DM type 1 patients was 80.0% for GADAb, 62.9% for IA-2Ab and 82.9% for GADAb and/or IA-2Ab. The long-duration type 1 diabetes subjects presented frequencies of 54.1% for GADAb and IA-2Ab, and 67.5% for GAD and/or IA-2 antibodies. The control group showed no positive cases. Anti-GAD and IA-2 assays showed a high frequency of positivity in these Brazilian type 1 diabetes patients, who presented the same prevalence as a Caucasian population. (+info)
(66/13421) Cardiologic evaluation of children with suspected heart disease: experience of a public outpatient clinic in Brazil.
CONTEXT: During initial evaluation of children on an outpatient basis, the index of suspected heart disease may be high, particularly if we consider that innocent murmur occurs in about 50% of the pediatric population. This is the most common cause of referral to the pediatric cardiologist. OBJECTIVE: To report on the experience of a public outpatient clinic in the southeastern region of Brazil. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of all patients submitted to cardiologic evaluation within a 39 month period. SETTING: Public pediatric cardiology outpatient clinic. PARTICIPANTS: 2675 consecutive children aged=15 years referred from the local and regional basic health units due to suspected heart disease. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Reason for referral, diagnostic investigation, final diagnosis based on the reason for referral, therapeutic procedures. RESULTS: The main reasons for referral were: murmur (70%), precordial pain (9%), suspicion of arrhythmia (9%) and breathlessness (5%). Of the total number, 695 cases (26%) did not complete the investigation and were not included in the analysis. A final diagnosis was obtained based on the reason for referral and the main conclusions were: l) a high incidence of normality was found: murmur (83%), pain (98%), arrhythmia (97%) and breathless (94%); 2) heart disease was unlikely, based on other referral reasons; 3) 14% of the children were considered abnormal and 1% needed therapeutical procedures. CONCLUSIONS: The establishment of a pediatric cardiology outpatient clinic within the public health service in the region seems to be justifiable, due to the high current demand. The low global incidence of heart disease, with a high prevalence of children with innocent murmur, discloses the need for a specific training program in cardiology for pediatricians. (+info)
(67/13421) Epidemiology of acquisition and clearance of cervical human papillomavirus infection in women from a high-risk area for cervical cancer.
Acquisition and clearance of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection were analyzed among 1425 low-income women attending a maternal and child health program in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Specimens collected every 4 months were tested by a polymerase chain reaction protocol (MY09/11). In all, 357 subjects were positive at least once. There were 1.3% new infections per month, with 38% cumulative positivity after 18 months. Of 177 positive subjects at enrollment, only 35% remained infected after 12 months. The monthly clearance rate was higher for nononcogenic types (12.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.6-15.4) than for oncogenic HPV infections (9.5%; 95% CI, 7.5-11.9). Median retention times were 8.1 months (95% CI, 7.8-8.3) for oncogenic types and 4.8 months (95% CI, 3.9-5.6) for nononcogenic HPV infections. The mean infection durations were 8.2 and 13.5 months for nononcogenic and oncogenic types, respectively. Although a woman's age did not affect mean duration for oncogenic types (13-14 months), nononcogenic-type infections lasted longer (10. 2 months) among younger (<35 years old) than in older women (5.6 months). (+info)
(68/13421) Familial resemblance in humoral immune response to defined and crude Schistosoma mansoni antigens in an endemic area in Brazil.
This study addressed whether the humoral immune response to crude and defined Schistosoma mansoni antigens aggregates within families. The sample included 155 siblings from 42 nuclear families in Brazil. Sera examined by ELISA for antibody isotypes reactive to defined schistosome antigens and crude schistosome antigens (soluble adult worm antigen preparation and soluble egg antigen) demonstrated that there was a difference in sibling-pair correlations between defined and crude S. mansoni antigens. In contrast to the finding with crude antigens, egg-positive sibling pairs showed significant familial resemblance for all IgG subclasses and IgE to adult-stage antigens Smp20.8 and Smp50. Only the IgE and IgG4 isotypes showed familial resemblance to the egg-stage antigen, Smp40. Egg-negative sibling pairs showed significant familial resemblance only for IgE and IgG4 to Smp40. That both the IgE and IgG4 response to defined S. mansoni antigens showed familial resemblance is interesting in light of the converging evidence for the role of IgE and IgG4 in human susceptibility and resistance to reinfection. (+info)
(69/13421) Non-traumatic acute abdomen: videolaparoscopic approach.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Although videolaparoscopy has been considered a safe method for many elective procedures, its use in traumatic and non-traumatic acute abdomen needs to be evaluated. The aim of this article is to evaluate the role of videolaparoscopy in non-traumatic acute abdomen as a method of diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: Between January 1992 and December 1996, 462 patients' charts were reviewed, retrospectively. Patients were admitted to the emergency room of Sao Rafael Hospital with symptoms of non-traumatic acute abdomen. Routine investigation of abdominal pain was performed in all patients, followed by videolaparoscopy. The laparoscopic procedures were done with four main purposes: diagnosis (ie, enteritis); diagnosis and treatment (ie, appendicitis); treatment only, when the diagnosis was known (ie, acute cholecystitis); and in cases where the conversion to conventional laparotomy was necessary, indicating the best incision. RESULTS: The vast majority of patients had inflammatory causes of acute abdomen (82.03%); others causes were hemoperitoneum (11.03%), bowel obstruction (3.25%), perforation of a hollow viscera (1.74%), vascular occlusion (1.3%), and negative laparoscopy (0.65%). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that laparotomy was necessary in only 7.14% of the patients. The videolaparoscopic approach was used for diagnosis (99.35%) and treatment (92.86%) of patients with acute abdomen. (+info)
(70/13421) Assessing morbidity in the paediatric community.
INTRODUCTION: Morbidity information is easily available from medical records but its scope is limited to the population attended by the health services. Information on the prevalence of diseases requires community surveys, which are not always feasible. These two sources of information represent two alternative assessments of disease occurrence, namely demand morbidity and perceived morbidity. The present study was conceived so as to elicit a potential relationship between them so that the former could be used in the absence of the latter. METHODS: A community of 13,365 families on the outskirts of S. Paulo, Brazil, was studied during the period from 15/Nov/1994 to 15/Jan/1995. Data regarding children less than 5 years old were collected from a household survey and from the 2 basic health units in the area. Prevalence of diseases was ascertained from perceived morbidity and compared to estimates computed from demand morbidity. RESULTS: Data analysis distinguished 2 age groups, infants less than 1 year old and children 1 to less than 5. The most important groups of diseases were respiratory diseases, diarrhoea, skin problems and infectious & parasitical diseases. Basic health units presented a better coverage for infants. Though disease frequencies were not different within or outside these units, a better coverage was found for diarrhoea and infectious & parasitical diseases in the infant group, and for diarrhoea in the older age group. Equivalence between the two types of morbidity was found to be limited to the infant group and concerned only the best covered diseases. The odds of a disease being seen at the health service should be of at least 4:10 to ensure this equivalence. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that, provided that health service coverage is good, demand morbidity can be taken as a reliable estimate of community morbidity. (+info)
(71/13421) Polymorphism at the merozoite surface protein-3alpha locus of Plasmodium vivax: global and local diversity.
Allelic diversity at the Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-3alpha (PvMsp-3alpha) locus was investigated using a combined polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) protocol. Symptomatic patient isolates from global geographic origins showed a high level of polymorphism at the nucleotide level. These samples were used to validate the sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the PCR/RFLP method. It was then used to investigate PvMsp3alpha diversity in field samples from children living in a single village in a malaria-endemic region of Papua New Guinea, with the aim of assessing the usefulness of this locus as an epidemiologic marker of P. vivax infections. Eleven PvMsp-3alpha alleles were distinguishable in 16 samples with single infections, revealing extensive parasite polymorphism within this restricted area. Multiple infections were easily detected and accounted for 5 (23%) of 22 positive samples. Pairs of samples from individual children provided preliminary evidence for high turnover of P. vivax populations. (+info)
(72/13421) Risk factors for death and changing patterns in leptospirosis acute renal failure.
The risk factors for death and changes in clinical patterns in leptospirosis (Weil's disease) have not been well studied. We retrospectively studied 110 patients with Weil's disease hospitalized in Brazil between 1985 and 1996. Univariate statistical analysis showed that nonsurvivors were older than survivors, and had higher frequency of oliguria, cardiac arrhythmia, dyspnea, and pulmonary rales. Logistic regression showed that the only independent factor associated with death was oliguria (odds ratio [OR] = 8.98). The presence of arthralgia (OR = 4.71), dehydration (OR = 6.26), dyspnea (OR = 17.7), and pulmonary rales (OR = 9.91) increased after 1994. These data suggest that in Weil's disease the clinical patterns have changed and the presence of oliguria is a risk factor for death. (+info)