(57/13421) Screening of army soldiers for Wuchereria bancrofti infection in the metropolitan Recife region, Brazil: implications for epidemiological surveillance.
Between 1989 and 1995, blood surveys were performed for Wuchereria bancrofti infection in several barracks of the Brazilian army in the metropolitan Recife region. For initial screening, 60 microliters of capillary blood were examined for microfilaria. All men who tested positive had microfilaria quantified by filtration of venous blood through a polycarbonate membrane. Of 23,773 men screened, 585 (2.5%) had microfilaria (mf). Microfilarial density ranged from < 1-8706 mf/ml of blood. Thirteen individuals had ultra-low microfilarial densities (1 mf/11 ml of blood). Characterization of 174 autochthonous cases made it possible to map 8 new districts in 4 cities within metropolitan Recife region where transmission of W. bancrofti was previously unknown. Routine screening of soldiers in the military may provide important surveillance data for national programmes to eliminate transmission of W. bancrofti. (+info)
(58/13421) Decreased point prevalence of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) oropharyngeal colonization by mass immunization of Brazilian children less than 5 years old with hib polyribosylribitol phosphate polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in combination with diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-pertussis vaccine.
A protective herd effect has been described after susceptible populations of children are vaccinated with conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Hib carriage was studied in children aged 6-24 months attending day care centers in two cities in southern Brazil (Curitiba and Porto Alegre). In Curitiba, routine immunization with Hib polyribosylribitol phosphate polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PRP-T) in combination with diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-pertussis vaccine (PRP-T/DTP) has been offered since September 1996; DTP vaccine alone is routinely given in Porto Alegre. Children in Porto Alegre (n=643) were 8 times less likely to have received adequate Hib vaccination and 4 times more likely to be Hib carriers than children in Curitiba (n=647; i.e., point prevalence of oropharyngeal colonization, 4.8% vs. 1.2%). Point prevalence of carriage with non-type b or other nontypeable Hi was similar in children of both cities. There was a vaccination effect on carriage rates in children who received a primary 3-dose series, independent of the booster dose, suggesting that a booster may be unnecessary to induce population protection. (+info)
(59/13421) Glomerular filtration rate, urinary albumin excretion rate, and blood pressure changes in normoalbuminuric normotensive type 1 diabetic patients: an 8-year follow-up study.
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), and blood pressure (BP) levels in a cohort of normoalbuminuric and normotensive type 1 diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This is an 8.4+/-2.1-year prospective study of 33 normotensive normoalbuminuric (24-h UAER <20 microg/min) type 1 diabetic patients. UAER (radioimmunoassay), GFR (51Cr-EDTA single-injection technique), and GHb (ion-exchange chromatography) were measured at baseline and at 1- to 2-year intervals. RESULTS: The GFR decreased (137.6+/-16.5 to 116.4+/-21.3 ml x min(-1) x 1.73 m(-2) P < 0.05) during the follow-up period. GFR reduction (-0.20+/-0.29 ml x min(-1) x month(-1); P < 0.05) was associated with baseline GFR and mean GHb (R2 = 0.30; beta = 0.072; F = 6.54; P = 0.004). UAER was higher at the end of the study (3.7-7.1 microg/min; P = 0.017). Microalbuminuria was observed in two patients, while macroalbuminuria was observed in one. No changes in UAER were observed when these three patients were excluded from the analysis. Mean blood pressure (MBP) increased during the study (85.8+/-9.7 to 99.6+/-11.6 mmHg; P < 0.001). MBP at the end of the study was associated with age and GFR at baseline (R2 = 0.39; beta = 0.074; F = 9.64; P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of normoalbuminuric normotensive type 1 diabetic patients, GFR decreased and BP levels increased during the follow-up period. The predictors for the GFR change were baseline GFR level and metabolic control. For end-of-study MBP, the predictor was baseline GFR level. (+info)
(60/13421) Increased blood pressure in adolescents who were small for gestational age at birth: a cohort study in Brazil.
BACKGROUND: This paper studies the relationship between birthweight for gestational age and blood pressure in adolescents aged 14-15 years in southern Brazil. METHODS: A sample of 1076 adolescents belonging to a cohort of over 6000 children born in 1982 in Pelotas, southern Brazil, was studied in 1997. All households in a sample of 25% of the city's census tracts were visited and all adolescents born in 1982 were interviewed, weighed, and their blood pressures were measured twice. Data from the adolescents were linked to the database through their names and dates of births. RESULTS: High diastolic and systolic pressure (defined as >95th percentile) were significantly more frequent among adolescents who were born below the 10th percentile of birthweight for gestational age. No association was found between high blood pressure and low birthweight or preterm births. In a multiple linear regression analysis, the association between birthweight for gestational age and blood pressure was not statistically significant after adjusting for age, sex, skin colour and family income. However, when the current body mass index and height were added to the model both diastolic and systolic pressure were significantly associated with birthweight for gestational age, and adolescents who were small for gestational age at birth presented a mean elevation of 3.08 mmHg for diastolic pressure and 2.89 mmHg for systolic pressure. CONCLUSIONS: There is an inverse association between birthweight for gestational age and blood pressure during adolescence. This association, however, is only disclosed when the negative confounding effect of the body mass index is controlled for. The same association is not found when the effects of birthweight and gestational age on blood pressure are analysed separately. It appears therefore that the elevation of blood pressure during adolescence only occurs when there was intra-uterine growth retardation. (+info)
(61/13421) Risk factors for the increasing caesarean section rate in Southeast Brazil: a comparison of two birth cohorts, 1978-1979 and 1994.
BACKGROUND: Brazil has the highest caesarean section (CS) rate in the world (36.4% in 1996). METHODS: Risk factors for increasing CS rate were studied in two population-based cohorts of singleton live births in families residing in the municipality of Ribeirao Preto, State of Sao Paulo, Southeast Brazil. The first comprised births from June 1978 to May 1979 (6750 births-one-year survey) and the second births from May to August 1994 (2846 births-4-month survey). Multiple unconditional logistic regression modelling was used to control for confounding. RESULTS: The CS rate rose from 30.3% in 1978-1979 to 50.8% in 1994. In 1978-1979, socioeconomic, reproductive and demographic variables, and health service factors were associated with CS rate. In 1994, only reproductive, demographic and health service factors remained associated, e.g. hour of delivery (from 7 a.m. to 12 p.m.), attendance by the same physician for prenatal care and delivery, > or =4 prenatal visits, maternal age > or =30 years, 1-3 previous live births and birthweight 3500-3999 g. CONCLUSION: Caesarean section in Brazil is widely performed for non-medical reasons in which physician convenience plays an important role. There is an urgent need for public health interventions to reduce the CS rate in Brazil, mainly directed towards cultural beliefs and physician behaviour. (+info)
(62/13421) Hepatitis A incidence rate estimates from a pilot seroprevalence survey in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
BACKGROUND: To assess the impact of water sanitation and sewage disposal, part of a major environmental control programme in Rio de Janeiro, we carried out sero-prevalence studies for Hepatitis A virus (HAV) in three micro-regions in Rio de Janeiro. Each region varied with regard to level of sanitation. We are interested in assessing the discriminating power of age-specific prevalence curves for HAV as a proxy for improvement in sanitation. These curves will serve as baseline information to future planned surveys as the sanitation programme progresses. METHODS: Incidence rate curves from prevalence data are estimated parametrically via a Weibull-like survival function, and non-parametrically via maximum likelihood and monotonic splines. Sera collected from children and adults in the three areas are used to detect antibodies against HAV through ELISA. RESULTS: We compare baseline incidence curves at the three sites estimated by the three methods. We observe a strong negative correlation between level of sanitation and incidence rates for HAV infection. Incidence estimates yielded by the parametric and non-parametric approaches tend to agree at early ages in the microregion showing the best level of sanitation and to increasingly disagree in the other two. CONCLUSION: Our results support the choice of HAV as a sentinel disease that is associated with level of sanitation. We also introduce monotonic splines as a novel non-parametric approach to estimate incidence from prevalence data. This approach outperforms current estimating procedures. (+info)
(63/13421) Endemic regions of paracoccidioidomycosis in Brazil: a clinical and epidemiologic study of 584 cases in the southeast region.
This paper describes the clinical-seroepidemiologic characteristics of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) who visited the University Hospital at the State University of Campinas (Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil). The study group consisted of 584 individuals (492 males and 92 females) with ages ranging from 5 to 87 years. The highest incidence of the disease occurred between the ages of 41 and 50 years for men and between 11 and 40 years for women. Rural activities were the principal occupation of 46% of the patients. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic examination and demonstration of fungus in scrapings, secretions, or in the sputum. Serologic test results for PCM were positive in 80% of the 584 patients studied. The significant number of patients, including 33 children less than 14 years old, indicates the presence of the fungus in the area and that this region is an important endemic area for PCM. (+info)
(64/13421) Chronic Chagas' heart disease in a Japanese-Brazilian traveler. A case report.
A 57-year-old Japanese-Brazilian man, visiting Japan for only 9 days, was admitted to our hospital due to syncope and frequent ventricular premature beats. He grew up in a rural area of Brazil and moved to Sao Paulo in 1959 when he was 20 years old. We suspected chronic Chagas' heart disease, i.e., dilated cardiomyopathy with apical ventricular aneurysm, right bundle branch block with left anterior fascicular block, and various arrhythmias including supraventricular premature beats, ventricular premature beats and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia because he showed typical echo- and electrocardiographic features of the disease. Coronary arteriograms were normal, and left ventriculogram confirmed the existence of apical ventricular aneurysm. A left ventricle biopsy specimen showed hypertrophic cardiac muscle with mild fibrosis. The diagnosis of chronic Chagas' disease was finally confirmed by the demonstration of Trypanosoma cruzi itself in the blood as well as Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies. (+info)