(1/203) Quantifying GPIIb/IIIa receptor binding using 2 monoclonal antibodies: discriminating abciximab and small molecular weight antagonists.
BACKGROUND: Dosing of glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists is frequently based on the inhibition of platelet aggregation, which may be influenced by the agonist used or concurrent medications. Here we describe a monoclonal antibody-based technique to quantify total and ligand-occupied GPIIb/IIIa receptors. METHODS AND RESULTS: In vitro binding of monoclonal antibodies, LYP18 (Mab1) and 4F8 (Mab2), to the GPIIb/IIIa complex, was characterized using purified receptor and to platelets by flow cytometry. Patients undergoing coronary angioplasty received a single 20 mg dose of the oral GPIIb/IIIa antagonist, xemilofiban, or matching placebo, and antibody binding was compared with inhibition of platelet aggregation. Mab1 and Mab2 were bound to purified GPIIb/IIIa and to unoccupied, inactivated receptor on platelets. Mab2 identified the beta3 subunit, whereas Mab1 was complex-specific. Neither antibody interfered with the other's binding, suggesting that they identified distinct sites. Mab1 identified 53 300+/-5423 GPIIb/IIIa sites per platelet, whereas Mab2 identified 50 120+/-5066 sites per platelet. Mab1 binding was inhibited by abciximab in a dose dependent manner (IC50, 0.85+/-0.1 microg/mL), whereas Mab2 binding was unaffected. In contrast, the 2 small molecular weight antagonists, SC-57101A (IC50, 0.22+/-0.06 micromol/L) and eptifibatide (IC50, 0.35+/-0.14 micromol/L) inhibited Mab2 but not Mab1 binding. In patients treated with xemilofiban, Mab1 binding was unaltered but Mab2 binding decreased from 37 930+/-2061 sites per platelet at baseline to 8318+/-870 sites per platelet 6 hours after dosing (P<0.0001). Platelet aggregation to adenosine diphosphate (20 micromol/L) fell to 3+/-3% of baseline in line with the inhibition of Mab2 binding (correlation coefficient 0.8, P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Mab1 and Mab2 bind to GPIIb/IIIa and are differentially displaced by abciximab and small molecular weight antagonists. These antibodies may be used to monitor receptor number and occupancy during administration of a GPIIb/IIIa antagonist. (+info)
(2/203) Lesions and identification of crystalline precipitates of glycoprotein IIb-IIIa antagonists in the rat kidney.
Two glycoprotein IIb-IIIa antagonists (xemilofiban, SC-54684A, and orbofiban, SC-57099B), which are platelet aggregation inhibitors, caused crystalline precipitates in the kidney tubules of rats at high dosages. Dogs were not affected. Depending on the degree of the precipitation, which was dosage dependent, and the location, which differed somewhat between the two compounds, the lesions varied from acute obstruction with tubule cell necrosis, nephron dilation, and sudden death with no inflammation to severe chronic pyogranulomatous inflammation. In order to understand the relevance of the lesions, it was important to identify the precipitates. This was technically challenging because the crystals were water soluble (dissolving in routine fixing and staining techniques) and were present in insufficient quantity to physically isolate. Techniques were devised to evaluate the crystals in situ in unstained frozen sections prepared without directly embedding the tissues in supporting medium, which interfered with the analyses. The crystals were analyzed in situ by infrared and Raman spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS). Uroliths found in the renal pelvis of one animal were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The resulting spectra showed that the crystals were the de-esterified acids of the parent compounds. This knowledge allowed us to predict that the crystalline precipitates would not be a hazard to humans because of the large multiples of the human dosage at which they occurred and because of differences in renal physiology between rats, dogs, and humans. (+info)
(3/203) Potent selective nonpeptidic inhibitors of human lung tryptase.
Human lung tryptase, a homotetrameric serine protease unique to mast cell secretory granules, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. A hypothesis that tethered symmetrical inhibitors might bridge two adjacent active sites was explored via a rationally designed series of bisbenzamidines. These compounds demonstrated a remarkable distanced-defined structure-activity relationship against human tryptase with one series possessing subnanomolar potencies. Additional evidence supporting the concept of active-site bridging is also presented. (+info)
(4/203) Design and evaluation of novel bivalent thrombin inhibitors based on amidinophenylalanines.
Two bivalent thrombin inhibitors were synthesized, which consist of a benzamidine-based active-site-blocking segment, a fibrinogen recognition exosite inhibitor and a peptidic linker connecting these fragments. BZA-1 hirulog contains an Nalpha-(2-naphthylsulfonyl)-S-3-amidinophenylalanyl-is onipecotic acid residue connected via the carboxyl group to the linker segment. The active-site-directed moiety of BZA-2 hirulog [Nalpha-(2-naphthylsulfonyl-glutamyl)-R-4-amidinophenylal anyl-piperid ide] was coupled to the linker via the side chain of the glutamic acid. Both BZA-hirulogs contain almost identical linker-exo site inhibitor parts, except for the substitution of a glycine as the first linker residue in BZA-1 hirulog by a gamma-amino butyric acid in BZA-2 hirulog, thus increasing flexibility and linker length by two additional atoms. BZA-1 hirulog showed moderate potency (Ki = 0. 50 +/- 0.14 nM), while BZA-2 hirulog was characterized as a slow, tight binding inhibitor of thrombin (Ki = 0.29 +/- 0.08 pM). The stability in human plasma of both analogs was strongly improved compared with hirulog-1. For BZA-2 hirulog a significantly reduced plasma clearance was observed after intravenous injection in rats compared with BZA-1 hirulog and hirulog-1. The X-ray structure of the BZA-2 hirulog in complex with human alpha-thrombin was solved and confirmed the expected bivalent binding mode. (+info)
(5/203) Draculin, the anticoagulant factor in vampire bat saliva, is a tight-binding, noncompetitive inhibitor of activated factor X.
The kinetic mechanism of action of Draculin on activated Factor X (FXa) is established. Draculin inhibits activated Factor X within seconds of incubation at near equimolar concentration (2-6 times on molar basis). Fitting the data to the equation for a tight-binding inhibitor gives a value for K(i)(K(d)) = 14.8+/-1.5 nM. The formation of the Draculin-FXa complex can be explained by a two-step mechanism, where for the first, reversible step, k(on) = 1.117 (+/- 0.169, S.E.M.) x 10(6) M(-1)s(-1) and k(off) = 15.388 (+/- 1.672) x 10(-3) s(-1), while for the second, irreversible step, which is concentration-independent, k(2) = 0.072 s(-1). K(d) obtained from k(off)/k(on) = 13.76 nM. Lineweaver-Burk plot shows a noncompetitive behavior. This noncompetitive mode of inhibition of Draculin is supported by the observation that Draculin, at concentrations giving complete inhibition, does not impair binding of p-aminobenzamidine to FXa. Moreover, under the same conditions, Draculin induces <14% decrease of the fluorescence intensity of the p-aminobenzamidine-FXa complex. We conclude that Draculin is a noncompetitive, tight-binding inhibitor of FXa, a characteristic so far unique amongst natural FXa inhibitors. (+info)
(6/203) In vivo and in vitro comparison of the short-term hematopoietic toxicity between hydroxyurea and trimidox or didox, novel ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors with potential anti-HIV-1 activity.
Inhibitors of the cellular enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (hydroxyurea, [HU]) have been proposed as a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of HIV type-1 (HIV-1) infection. However, HU use may be limited by the frequent development of hematopoietic toxicity. We report here short-term hematopoietic toxicity in mice receiving HU when compared to either of two more potent enzyme inhibitors, didox (DX) and trimidox (TX). High dose HU, DX, and TX monotherapy (500, 460, and 220 mg/kg/day respectively) was administered by daily i.p. injection (Monday-Friday) to C57BL/6 mice for 10 weeks. Effects on hematopoiesis were established by quantitating peripheral blood indices (hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, mean cell hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, RBC, and WBC) and numbers of colony-forming units-granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) and BFU-E from bone marrow and spleen. HU produced rapid induction of a macrocytic hypochromic anemia and altered white blood cell kinetics associated with myelosuppression defined as reduced marrow organ cellularity and induction of splenic extramedullary hematopoiesis. Compared to HU, TX and DX induced fewer changes in peripheral blood indices and CFU-GM and BFU-E per hematopoietic organ. In vitro human and murine marrow CFU-GM and BFU-E colony formations were assayed in the presence of dose escalation HU, DX, or TX (0, 1, 10, 50, 100, and 200 microM). HU inhibited colony formation more than either DX or TX. These in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that novel ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors TX and DX may provide an effective alternative to HU in HIV-1 therapy because they demonstrate reduced hematopoietic toxicity. (+info)
(7/203) Different effects of trypsin inhibitors on intestinal gene expression of secretin and on pancreatic bicarbonate secretion in CCK-A-receptor-deficient rats.
The effects of oral administration of two synthetic trypsin inhibitors (camostate and ONO-3403) and soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI) on cholecystokinin (CCK), secretin gene expression and pancreatic secretion were examined in CCK-A-receptor-deficient (OLETF) rats. The rats were fed chow containing 0.1% trypsin inhibitors for 7 days. To examine pancreatic secretion, the rats were prepared with cannulae to drain the bile and pancreatic juice separately, a duodenal cannula and an external jugular vein cannula. The animals were maintained in Bollman cages and the experiments were conducted 4 days after surgery. The levels of CCK mRNA were significantly increased by each treatment. The levels of secretin mRNA were significantly increased by camostate and SBTI, but not by ONO-3403. Bicarbonate secretion was significantly increased in rats treated with camostate and ONO-3403, but not SBTI, while protein secretion was not affected by any treatment. These observations suggest that increased bicarbonate secretion produced by synthetic trypsin inhibitors in CCK-A-receptor-deficient rats may not be due to secretin but due to ONO-3403 in the circulation. (+info)
(8/203) Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists induce apoptosis in rat cardiomyocytes by caspase-3 activation.
The platelet integrin glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa, which mediates platelet aggregation, has been the target for novel antiplatelet agents, the GPIIb/IIIa antagonists. Several GPIIb/IIIa antagonists have been developed based on the peptide RGDS present in adhesion proteins, including the principle ligand fibrinogen. The apoptosis enzyme, procaspase-3, contains an RGD-recognition sequence and is activated by RGDS. We examined the effects of RGDS and several GPIIb/IIIa antagonists on cell death and procaspase-3 activation in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. These antagonists do not recognize rat integrins, yet RGDS, orbofiban, and xemilofiban induced dose-dependent apoptosis and procaspase-3 activation in cardiomyocytes over 72 h, particularly under hypoxic conditions. Scrambled peptide, the monoclonal antibody 7E3 or integrelin (a peptide containing a KGD sequence), had little or no effect. Immunoprecipitation of procaspase-3 followed by treatment with the compounds showed that procaspase-3 was activated directly by RGDS, orbofiban, xemilofiban, and by monoclonal 7E3 antibody, the latter demonstrating that compounds must enter cells to induce apoptosis through caspase activation. Integrelin had no effect. Binding studies with (3)H-SC52012B, a GPIIb/IIIa antagonist analogue of orbofiban, showed no specific binding to cardiomyocytes, but the radioligand accumulated intracellularly over 72 h. (3)H-SC52012B also bound directly to human recombinant caspase-3 (K(d), 59 +/- 2 nm), and this was prevented by orbofiban, xemilofiban, and the monoclonal 7E3 antibody but not by integrelin. Finally confocal microscopy showed that RGDS co-localized with caspase-3 inside the cell. These data show that RGDS and its mimetics induce cardiomyocyte apoptosis by direct activation of procaspase-3. (+info)