(41/151) The use of classroom training and simulation in the training of medical responders for airport disaster.

There is a dire need to have complementary form of disaster training which is cost effective, relatively easy to conduct, comprehensive, effective and acceptable. This will complement field drills training. A classroom-based training and simulation module was built by combining multiple tools: Powerpoint lectures, simulations utilising the Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) schematic module into 'floortop' model and video show of previous disaster drill. 76 participants made up of medical responders, categorised as Level 1 (specialists and doctors), Level 2 (paramedics), Level 3 (assistant paramedics) and Level 4 (health attendants and drivers) were trained using this module. A pre-test with validated questions on current airport disaster plans was carried out before the training. At the end of training, participants answered similar questions as post-test. Participants also answered questionnaire for assessment of training's acceptance. There was a mean rise from 47.3 (18.8%) to 84.0 (18.7%) in post-test (p<0.05). For Levels 1, 2, 3 and 4 the scores were 94.8 (6.3)%, 90.1 (11)%, 80.3 (20.1)% and 65 (23.4)% respectively. Nevertheless Level 4 group gained most increase in knowledge rise from baseline pre-test score (51.4%). Feedback from the questionnaire showed that the training module was highly acceptable. A classroom-based training can be enhanced with favourable results. The use of classroom training and simulation effectively improves the knowledge of disaster plan significantly on the back of its low cost, relatively-easy to conduct, fun and holistic nature. All Levels of participants (from specialists to drivers) can be grouped together for training. Classroom training and simulation can overcome the problem of "dead-document" phenomenon or "paper-plan syndrome".  (+info)

(42/151) Injuries in Swedish skydiving.

OBJECTIVE: To create a basis for prevention of modern skydiving injuries. DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiological study. SETTING: National total material. PATIENTS: Data on all reported injury events (n = 257) in Swedish skydiving 1999-2003 (total 539,885 jumps) were retrieved from the Swedish Parachute Association. Non-fatally injured skydivers were sent a questionnaire asking for event and injury details (response rate 89%), and supplementary hospital records were retrieved for the most serious injuries (n = 85). Human, equipment and environmental factors were assessed for risk. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Frequency and severity of injuries. RESULTS: Incidence of non-fatal injury events was 48 per 100,000 jumps. The lower extremities, spine and shoulders were important regions of injury. The most serious injuries were experienced by licensed skydivers, but students in training had a higher injury rate and more often left the sport because of the injury. Of two student-training systems, one had an incidence less than half that of the other. CONCLUSIONS: A basis for prevention was created, showing a potential for reduction of frequency and severity of injuries with training and technical interventions.  (+info)

(43/151) Pilot age and expertise predict flight simulator performance: a 3-year longitudinal study.

BACKGROUND: Expert knowledge may compensate for age-related declines in basic cognitive and sensory-motor abilities in some skill domains. We investigated the influence of age and aviation expertise (indexed by Federal Aviation Administration pilot ratings) on longitudinal flight simulator performance. METHODS: Over a 3-year period, 118 general aviation pilots aged 40 to 69 years were tested annually, in which their flight performance was scored in terms of 1) executing air-traffic controller communications; 2) traffic avoidance; 3) scanning cockpit instruments; 4) executing an approach to landing; and 5) a flight summary score. RESULTS: More expert pilots had better flight summary scores at baseline and showed less decline over time. Secondary analyses revealed that expertise effects were most evident in the accuracy of executing aviation communications, the measure on which performance declined most sharply over time. Regarding age, even though older pilots initially performed worse than younger pilots, over time older pilots showed less decline in flight summary scores than younger pilots. Secondary analyses revealed that the oldest pilots did well over time because their traffic avoidance performance improved more vs younger pilots. CONCLUSIONS: These longitudinal findings support previous cross-sectional studies in aviation as well as non-aviation domains, which demonstrated the advantageous effect of prior experience and specialized expertise on older adults' skilled cognitive performances.  (+info)

(44/151) Use of skills learned in CBT for fear of flying: managing flying anxiety after September 11th.

Although there is evidence that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective in the treatment for fear of flying (FOF), there are no studies that specifically examine which skills taught in treatment are being used by clients after treatment is completed. This study examines whether participants report using skills taught in treatment for FOF after treatment is completed and whether the reported use of these skills is associated with reduced flying anxiety in the face of fear-relevant event, the September 11th terrorist attacks, and over the long-term. One hundred fifteen participants were randomly assigned to and completed eight sessions of individual CBT treatment for FOF. Fifty-five participants were reassessed in June 2002, an average of 2.3 years after treatment. Surveys were also collected from 33 individuals who did not receive treatment for FOF. Results indicated that treatment completers were more likely to report using skills taught in treatment than individuals who had not received treatment. In addition, self-reported use of skills among previously treated individuals was associated with lower levels of flying anxiety. These findings suggest that use of skills taught in CBT treatment is associated with reduced flying anxiety in the face of a fear-relevant event and over the long term.  (+info)

(45/151) Detection of orthopaedic implants by airport metal detectors.

INTRODUCTION: We performed a questionnaire study to establish the frequency and consequences of the detection of orthopaedic implants by airport security and to help us advise patients correctly. All published literature on this subject is based on experimental studies and no 'real-life' data are available. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 200 patients with a variety of implants were identified. All patients were sent a postal questionnaire enquiring about their experience with airport security since their surgery. RESULTS: Of the cohort, 154 (77%) patients responded. About half of the implants (47%) were detected, but the majority of patients (72%) were not significantly inconvenienced. When detected, only 9% of patients were asked for documentary evidence of their implant. We also found that patients with a total knee replacement (TKR) had a greater chance of detection as compared to those with a total hip replacement (THR; 71% versus 31%; P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: All patients, and in particular those with a TKR, can be re-assured that, although they have a fair chance of detection by airport security, a major disruption to their journey is unlikely. We advise that documentation to prove the presence of an orthopaedic implant should be offered to those who are concerned about the potential for inconvenience, but such documentation is not required routinely.  (+info)

(46/151) Climatic similarity and biological exchange in the worldwide airline transportation network.

Recent increases in the rates of biological invasion and spread of infectious diseases have been linked to the continued expansion of the worldwide airline transportation network (WAN). Here, the global structure of the WAN is analysed in terms of climatic similarity to illuminate the risk of deliberate or accidental movements of climatically sensitive organisms around the world. From over 44,000 flight routes, we show, for each month of an average year, (i) those scheduled routes that link the most spatially distant but climatically similar airports, (ii) the climatically best-connected airports, and (iii) clusters of airports with similar climatic features. The way in which traffic volumes alter these findings is also examined. Climatic similarity across the WAN is skewed (most geographically close airports are climatically similar) but heavy-tailed (there are considerable numbers of geographically distant but climatically similar airports), with climate similarity highest in the June-August period, matching the annual peak in air traffic. Climatically matched, geographically distant airports form subnetworks within the WAN that change throughout the year. Further, the incorporation of passenger and freight traffic data highlight at greater risk of invasion those airports that are climatically well connected by numerous high capacity routes.  (+info)

(47/151) Electroencephalography artifacts in workplace alertness monitoring.

OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the effect of removing artifacts from workplace electroencephalography (EEG) recordings on power spectra and the consequent interpretation of changes in alertness. METHODS: EEG was recorded for 27 air traffic controllers on the night shifts of four roster cycles. On two of the four night shifts, each controller was given a 40-minute opportunity to nap, while on the other two they remained awake (105 shifts in total). Recordings for the last hour of each night shift were screened for artifacts by an experienced viewer (who viewed the EEG in isolation from other electrophysiological recordings). The effects of the nap opportunity on the EEG power spectra were then analyzed in a mixed model analysis of variance in the presence and absence of artifact-contaminated data. RESULTS: Overall, 89.3% of the EEG recordings contained artifacts. Removal of these data markedly altered the interpretation of how the nap opportunities affected the EEG power spectra. The spectral parameters of the artifact appeared to be different when the participants were given the opportunity to nap. CONCLUSIONS: Removal of artifacts can dramatically affect the interpretation of workplace EEG recordings. This potential source of error is often unreported.  (+info)

(48/151) Effect of exposure to a mixture of solvents and noise on hearing and balance in aircraft maintenance workers.

Aircraft maintenance workers are exposed to a mixture of solvents in the presence of intermittent noise. For this study these workers exposed to solvent mix and noise, were compared with mill workers exposed to noise alone, printed circuit board operatives exposed to solvents alone and those exposed to none who acted as controls. Tympanometry, acoustic reflex thresholds, transient and distortion product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem potentials, nystagmography and posturography were examined. There was a significant effect on pure tone thresholds for both noise and solvents+noise. The distortion product otoacoustic emissions declined with frequency and exhibited lower DP amplitude with noise compared to solvents and noise group. The transient emissions showed a similar effect. Over 32% of subjects with solvent and noise exposure had abnormalities of the auditory brainstem responses in terms of interwave interval prolongation. The mean acoustic reflex thresholds showed a pattern of differences which differentiate noise from solvent and noise groups. The contralateral pathway appears to be differentially affected by solvent exposure. 32% of subjects in the solvents and noise group had an abnormal posturographic finding. In the solvents and noise group 74% had abnormalities of saccades, 56% of pursuit and 45% of optokinetic nystagmus.  (+info)