(1/700) Cancer incidence in the south Asian population of England (1990-92).
Cancer incidence among English south Asians (residents in England with ethnic origins in India, Pakistan or Bangladesh) is described and compared with non-south Asian and Indian subcontinent rates. The setting for the study was areas covered by Thames, Trent, West Midlands and Yorkshire cancer registries. The study identified 356 555 cases of incident cancer (ICD9:140-208) registered between 1990 and 1992, including 3845 classified as English south Asian. The main outcome measures were age specific and directly standardized incidence rates for all cancer sites (ICD9:140-208). English south Asian incidence rates for all sites combined were significantly lower than non-south Asian rates but higher than Indian subcontinent rates. English south Asian rates were substantially higher than Indian subcontinent rates for a number of common sites including lung cancer in males, breast cancer in females and lymphoma in both sexes. English south Asian rates for childhood and early adult cancer (0-29 years) were similar or higher than non-south Asian rates. English south Asian rates were significantly higher than non-south Asian rates for Hodgkin's disease in males, cancer of the tongue, mouth, oesophagus, thyroid gland and myeloid leukaemia in females, and cancer of the hypopharynx, liver and gall bladder in both sexes. The results are consistent with a transition from the lower cancer risk of the country of ethnic origin to that of the country of residence. They suggest that detrimental changes in lifestyle and other exposures have occurred in the migrant south Asian population. (+info)
(2/700) Partial remission phase of diabetes in children younger than age 10 years.
There is renewed interest in the phase of partial remission in recently diagnosed diabetes because of the potential for pharmacological and immune intervention to preserve beta cell function. 95 children younger than 10 years were investigated to assess the influence of age, sex, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), admission at diagnosis, and ethnicity on the frequency of remission and insulin requirements during the first two years after diagnosis. Partial remission was defined as a requirement of insulin < 0.5 U/kg body weight/day. There was partial remission in 41 patients, with no differences for children aged 2-4 years and those aged 5-9 years. None of the five children aged < 2 years remitted. Forty five of 95 children were admitted to hospital at diagnosis, of whom 26 of 45 had DKA (blood pH < 7.25). In this number of children we were unable to show a statistical difference in the rate of remission with respect to DKA, admission to hospital at diagnosis, sex, or South Asian ethnic background. There were no differences in insulin requirements between the different groups by the end of two years and at that time seven of the children required insulin < 0.5 U/kg/day. The results suggest that even in preschool children there is potential for attempting to preserve beta cell function. (+info)
(3/700) Multicentric origin of hemochromatosis gene (HFE) mutations.
Genetic hemochromatosis (GH) is believed to be a disease restricted to those of European ancestry. In northwestern Europe, >80% of GH patients are homozygous for one mutation, the substitution of tyrosine for cysteine at position 282 (C282Y) in the unprocessed protein. In a proportion of GH patients, two mutations are present, C282Y and H63D. The clinical significance of this second mutation is such that it appears to predispose 1%-2% of compound heterozygotes to expression of the disease. The distribution of the two mutations differ, C282Y being limited to those of northwestern European ancestry and H63D being found at allele frequencies>5%, in Europe, in countries bordering the Mediterranean, in the Middle East, and in the Indian subcontinent. The C282Y mutation occurs on a haplotype that extends =6 Mb, suggesting that this mutation has arisen during the past 2,000 years. The H63D mutation is older and does not occur on such a large extended haplotype, the haplotype in this case extending =700 kb. Here we report the finding of the H63D and C282Y mutations on new haplotypes. In Sri Lanka we have found H63D on three new haplotypes and have found C282Y on one new haplotype, demonstrating that these mutations have arisen independently on this island. These results suggest that the HFE gene has been the subject of selection pressure. These selection pressures could be due to infectious diseases, environmental conditions, or other genetic disorders such as anemia. (+info)
(4/700) Cancer mortality in East and Southeast Asian migrants to New South Wales, Australia, 1975-1995.
Routinely collected data for New South Wales were used to analyse cancer mortality in migrants born in East or Southeast Asia according to duration of residence in Australia. A case-control approach compared deaths from cancer at particular sites with deaths from all other cancers, adjusting for age, sex and calendar period. Compared with the Australian-born, these Asian migrants had a 30-fold higher risk of dying from nasopharyngeal cancer in the first 2 decades of residence, falling to ninefold after 30 years, and for deaths from liver cancer, a 12-fold risk in the first 2 decades, falling to threefold after 30 years. The initial lower risk from colorectal, breast or prostate cancers later converged towards the Australian-born level, the change being apparent in the third decade after migration. The relative risk of dying from lung cancer among these Asian migrants was above unity for each category of duration of stay for women, but at or below unity for men, with no trend in risk over time. An environmental or lifestyle influence for nasopharyngeal and liver cancers is suggested as well as for cancers of colon/rectum, breast and prostate. (+info)
(5/700) Multispecies Plasmodium infections of humans.
We analyzed point-prevalence data from 19 recent studies of human populations in which either Plasmodium ovale or Plasmodium vivax co-occur with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium malariae. Although the only statistical interactions among, sympatric congeners are pairwise, the frequencies of mixed-species infections relative to standard hypotheses of species sampling independence show no strong relation to overall malaria prevalence. The striking difference between the P. falciparum-P. malariae-P. ovale and the P. falciparum-P. malariae-P. vivax data is that the first typically shows a statistical surplus of mixed-species infections and the second a deficit. This suggests that the number of Plasmodium species present in a human population may be less important in determining the frequencies of mixed-species infections than is the identity of those species. (+info)
(6/700) Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--South East Asia Region, 1997-1998.
In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis by 2000. To achieve this goal, in 1994 World Health Organization (WHO) South East Asia Region (SEAR) member countries accelerated implementation of polio eradication strategies. In 1994, Thailand became the region's first country to initiate National Immunization Days (NIDs), followed by Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka (1995); Myanmar and Nepal (1996); and Democratic People's Republic (DPR) of Korea and Maldives (1997). This report summarizes the progress in achieving routine and supplemental vaccination coverage and surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and the impact of these activities on polio eradication in the region. (+info)
(7/700) Barriers to meeting the mental health needs of the Chinese community.
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify the barriers encountered by Chinese people with mental health needs in England which hindered their obtaining appropriate help from the National Health Service (NHS). METHODS: Attenders at Chinese community centres in health authority districts with resident Chinese population in excess of 2000 were invited to fill in a 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire (12-CHQ). Individuals who scored two or above, indicating a high probability of a mental health problem, were invited to undertake a semi-structured interview. RESULTS: A total of 401 completed the 12-CHQ. Eighty-six (21.4 per cent) screened positive and 71 (82.6 per cent) agreed to be interviewed. Although 70 (98.6 per cent) were registered with a general practitioner (GP), there were long delays before they made contact with health professionals, and the GP was the first port of call for help in only 27 (38.6 per cent) interviewees. Fifty-two (74.3 per cent) had encountered difficulties when they sought professional help. The main barriers were language, interviewees' perceptions of symptoms as somatic rather than psychiatric in origin, lack of knowledge about statutory services, and lack of access to bilingual health professionals. Doctors, particularly GPs, were pivotal in the management of their conditions. The majority were prescribed psychiatric medication with only a small number in contact with community psychiatric services. Unemployment and social exclusion were common. Stigma associated with mental illness and limited knowledge in the community were identified as the causes for the widespread discrimination experienced by the interviewees. CONCLUSION: The mental health needs of these Chinese people were not adequately met by statutory services, nor could they rely on family and friends for care and support. Training for health service staff and access to health advocates are essential to maximize the effectiveness of health professional-patient contacts. The promotion of better understanding of mental illness by the Chinese community is important, and greater flexibility within the NHS is required to ensure those professionals with bilingual skills are used to the best effect. (+info)
(8/700) Serum dioxin and immunologic response in veterans of Operation Ranch Hand.
The authors studied immune response and exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin) among veterans of Operation Ranch Hand, the US Air Force unit responsible for the aerial spraying of herbicides in Vietnam from 1962 to 1971. A comparison group of Air Force veterans who served in Southeast Asia but were not involved in spraying herbicides was included. The authors studied delayed-type hypersensitivity skin test responses to Candida albicans, mumps, Trichophyton, and a bacterial antigen made from lysed Staphylococcus aureus. Lymphocyte measurements included total lymphocyte counts; T-cell (CD3, CD4, CD5, and CD8), B-cell (CD20), and NK-cell (CD16 and CD56) subsets; and expression of the activation antigen CD25 on CD3 T cells. The authors quantitated the serum concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig)A, IgG, and IgM; examined sera for the presence of monoclonal immunoglobulins (M proteins); and looked for a broad range of autoantibodies (rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, smooth muscle autoantibody, mitochondrial autoantibody, parietal cell autoantibody, and thyroid microsomal autoantibodies). They measured the level of dioxin in 1987 or 1992, extrapolated the result to the time of service in Vietnam, and assigned each veteran to one of four exposure categories: Comparison and three Ranch Hand groups (Background, Low, or High). Overall, the authors found no evidence of a consistent relation between dioxin exposure category and immune system alteration. (+info)
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