(9/472) Successful management of the obese patient.
Obesity is a chronic disease that affects a substantial number of Americans. Obesity significantly increases a person's risk of cardiovascular diseases and morbidity. Modification of lifestyle behaviors that contribute to obesity (e.g., inappropriate diet and inactivity) is the cornerstone of treatment. Behavior modification involves using such techniques as self-monitoring, stimulus control, cognitive restructuring, stress management and social support to systematically alter obesity-related behaviors. In addition, adjunctive pharmacotherapy can play an important role in the routine medical management of obesity. (+info)
(10/472) Medical management of obesity.
Obesity is one of the most common medical problems in the United States and a risk factor for illnesses such as hypertension, diabetes, degenerative arthritis and myocardial infarction. It is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality and generates great social and financial costs. Obesity is defined as a body mass index greater than 30. Many patients accomplish weight loss with diet, exercise and lifestyle modification. Others require more aggressive therapy. Weight loss medications may be appropriate for use in selected patients who meet the definition of obesity or who are overweight with comorbid conditions. Medications are formulated to reduce energy intake, increase energy output or decrease the absorption of nutrients. Drugs cannot replace diet, exercise and lifestyle modification, which remain the cornerstones of obesity treatment. Two new agents, sibutramine and orlistat, exhibit novel mechanisms of action and avoid some of the side effects that occurred with earlier drugs. Sibutramine acts to block uptake of serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, while orlistat decreases fat absorption in the intestines. (+info)
(11/472) Treating obesity. Lost cause or new opportunity?
OBJECTIVE: To review therapies for treating obese patients. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Advice in this paper is based mainly on the results of randomized controlled trials. Some data from smaller, more physiologic studies are included. When appropriate, advice is based on consensus. MAIN MESSAGE: Recent medical evidence indicates that a modest weight loss (5% to 10%) can alleviate symptoms of obesity-related comorbidity. Treatment of obesity should be comprehensive and integrated into a multi-component approach and should involve both patients and their families. The main challenge of obesity is maintaining a reduced weight. CONCLUSION: A multi-component approach to treating obesity can help make treatment less frustrating and more rewarding for patients and physicians. (+info)
(12/472) Chronic (-)-hydroxycitrate administration spares carbohydrate utilization and promotes lipid oxidation during exercise in mice.
(-)-Hydroxycitrate (HCA) is an active ingredient that is extracted from the rind of the Indian fruit, Garcinia cambogia, which is available as an herbal supplement and is used to lose weight. In this study, the acute and chronic effects of HCA on energy metabolism were examined in male Std ddY mice. Mice were placed into metabolic chambers and administered 10 mg HCA or water (control) orally. Serum free fatty acid levels were significantly higher 100 min after administration in the HCA group, but the respiratory exchange ratio was not different from that in the control group. The concentration of glycogen in the gastrocnemius muscle was higher in the HCA group 16 h after administration, and in a separate study, the maximum swimming time until fatigue was slightly longer (P: = 0. 21) than that in the control group on d 1. The difference was significant on d 3 after 3 d of HCA or water administration. Other mice were administered 10 mg HCA or water orally twice a day for 25 d. On d 26, they were placed into metabolic chambers after administration and allowed to rest for 1 h, followed by 1 h of running at 15 m/min. Respiratory gas was monitored. The respiratory exchange ratio was significantly lower in the HCA group during both resting and exercising conditions. These results suggest that chronic administration of HCA promotes lipid oxidation and spares carbohydrate utilization in mice at rest and during running. (+info)
(13/472) Short-term orlistat treatment does not affect mineral balance and bone turnover in obese men.
Orlistat is a gastrointestinal lipase inhibitor that is used to reduce dietary fat absorption and to enhance weight loss in subjects consuming a hypocaloric diet. To assess whether orlistat has an effect on the metabolism of six minerals, a 21-d, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled mineral balance study was conducted in obese (body mass index > 30 kg/m(2)) men. Subjects consumed a hypocaloric diet with a constant daily mineral content and received daily oral treatment with orlistat (120 mg three times daily) (n = 14) or placebo (three times daily) (n = 14) for 21 d. After a 14-d equilibration period, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, copper and zinc balances were assessed for d 15-21. In addition, the effect of diet and orlistat treatment on bone metabolism was estimated from measurement of biomarkers of bone formation and bone resorption. Serum and urine electrolytes were also measured at baseline and at the end of treatment. Orlistat inhibited fat absorption by approximately 33% (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in mineral apparent absorption, urinary mineral loss or mineral balance between the orlistat and placebo groups. Markers of bone turnover and serum and urine electrolytes did not differ between the orlistat and placebo groups. Orlistat was well tolerated; adverse events were of mild or moderate intensity, and the majority of these events were unrelated or remotely related to study treatment. In obese men consuming a hypocaloric diet, the administration of orlistat had no significant effect on the balance of six selected minerals. In addition, biomarkers of bone turnover, as well as serum and urine electrolytes, were not affected by orlistat treatment. (+info)
(14/472) A rapid and systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of orlistat in the management of obesity.
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity in developed societies is increasing. Obesity is associated with an increased risk of co-morbidity, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Following the withdrawal of fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine, interest has focused on a novel anti-obesity drug orlistat. OBJECTIVE: To systematically assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of orlistat in the management of obesity. METHODS - SEARCH STRATEGY: Nineteen electronic databases were searched from inception to June 2000. Additionally, Internet searches were carried out, bibliographies of retrieved articles were examined and submissions were received from the manufacturer of orlistat. METHODS - INCLUSION AND EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effectiveness of orlistat used for weight loss or maintenance of weight loss in overweight or obese patients were eligible for inclusion. Primary outcome measures were changes in body weight, fat content or fat distribution. Secondary outcomes were changes in obesity-related risk-factor profiles, such as lipid levels, indicators of glycaemic control and blood pressure. Studies recruiting people with eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa were excluded. METHODS - PROCESS OF STUDY SELECTION: Assessment of titles and abstracts was performed independently by two reviewers. If either reviewer considered a reference to be relevant, the full paper was retrieved. Full papers were assessed against the review selection criteria by two independent reviewers, and disagreements were resolved through discussion. METHODS - DATA EXTRACTION: Data were extracted by one reviewer into structured summary tables and checked by a second reviewer. Any disagreements about data were resolved by discussion. METHODS - QUALITY ASSESSMENT: Each included trial was assessed against a comprehensive checklist for methodological quality. Quality assessment was performed independently by two reviewers with disagreements resolved by discussion. METHODS - METHODS OF ANALYSIS/SYNTHESIS: This report is a narrative summary, with results grouped according to study endpoint. Statistical pooling was undertaken in groups of trials that were considered to be sufficiently similar. METHODS - ESTIMATION OF QUALITY OF LIFE, COSTS AND COST-EFFECTIVENESS AND/OR COST PER QUALITY-ADJUSTED LIFE-YEAR: Relevant economic evaluations were identified from the search strategy described above. Assessment of methodological quality was undertaken using principles outlined in published guidelines. METHODS - COMPANY SUBMISSIONS: Data from company submissions were subject to the same selection and appraisal processes as other studies considered for inclusion in the review, except that only RCTs with a duration of at least 1 year were selected. RESULTS - RESULTS OF THE SEARCH STRATEGY: Fourteen RCTs (including three company submissions) and two economic evaluations (including one company submission) were included in the review. RESULTS - RESULTS OF THE QUALITY ASSESSMENT: Methodological quality of trials was moderate to good. The main problems were lack of detail on methods used to produce true randomisation, small sample sizes in some cases and failure to use intention-to-treat analysis. It is likely that maintenance of blinding was difficult due to adverse effects associated with the study medication. RESULTS - EVIDENCE OF CLINICAL EFFECTIVENESS AND COST-EFFECTIVENESS: Most of the trials showed greater weight loss and better weight maintenance with orlistat compared to placebo at all endpoints (statistically significant differences for both outcomes). Orlistat 120 mg three times daily was the optimum regimen in terms of weight loss. Most trials showed significant improvement in at least some lipid concentration parameters, and, in three RCTs, orlistat produced statistically significant reductions in blood pressure relative to placebo. In obese patients with type 2 diabetes, orlistat resulted in a significantly greater weight loss at 1 year compared with placebo, and some parameters of glycaemic control and lipid concentration also showed significantly greater improvements compared with placebo. The incidence of gastrointestinal adverse events was consistently higher in orlistat groups compared with placebo, and orlistat use was associated with lower serum levels of fat-soluble vitamins. The cost per quality-adjusted life-year for orlistat was 45,881 UK pounds. CONCLUSIONS - IMPLICATIONS FOR CLINICAL PRACTICE: Although many trials have demonstrated statistically significant differences between groups in terms of weight loss in favour of orlistat versus placebo, the differences may not always be of clinical significance. The clinical significance of between-group differences for secondary outcomes may also be debatable. Possible adverse effects should be taken into account when prescribing orlistat, particularly gastrointestinal effects. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) (+info)
(15/472) Inhibition of gastrointestinal lipolysis by Orlistat during digestion of test meals in healthy volunteers.
The inhibition of digestive lipases by the antiobesity drug Orlistat along with lipolysis levels and fecal fat excretion were measured in healthy humans. Orlistat was found to be a powerful gastric lipase inhibitor, achieving 46.6--91.4% enzyme inhibition and thus greatly reducing gastric lipolysis of solid and liquid meals (11--33% of respective controls). Gastric lipase inhibition by Orlistat was extremely fast (half-inhibition time < 1 min). Duodenal lipolysis was reduced significantly by Orlistat given with the solid meal (32.6--37.6% of controls) but was only slightly reduced by Orlistat given with the liquid meal (74.5--100% of controls). Human pancreatic lipase (HPL) inhibition was found to be high (51.2--82.6%), however, regardless of the meal. These paradoxical results were explained when in vitro lipolysis experiments were performed. The rates of HPL inhibition by Orlistat were found to be similar with both types of meals (half-inhibition time 5--6 min), but the preemulsified triglycerides of the liquid meal were rapidly hydrolyzed by HPL before the enzyme was significantly inhibited by Orlistat. With the solid meal, the rate of hydrolysis of the meal triglycerides by HPL was slower than the rate of HPL inhibition by Orlistat. As predicted from the previous results, the effects of Orlistat on fat excretion levels were found to be much greater with the solid (40.5--57.4% of ingested fat) than with the liquid (4.2--18.8%) test meal. (+info)
(16/472) Progression rate of Chinese herb nephropathy: impact of Aristolochia fangchi ingested dose.
BACKGROUND: Renal failure after ingestion of Chinese herbs between 1990 and 1992 was related to the replacement of Stephania tetrandra by Aristolochia fangchi (ST-AF), containing nephrotoxic and carcinogenic aristolochic acids. However, the relationship between ST-AF and renal failure is still a matter of debate. We therefore tested the impact of the ST-AF ingested dose on the progression of renal function deterioration. METHODS: Analysis of medical charts and prescriptions between 1990 and 1992 was carried out to determine the presence of risk factors for kidney failure and the cumulative dose of pill components. Individual progression rate of renal impairment was studied by the time-course of the inverse of blood creatinine level (1/P(creat)). RESULTS: Patients were divided into an end-stage renal disease (ESRD) group (n=44) and a chronic renal failure (CRF) group (n=27) according to their P(creat) at the time of this study. The mean number of risk factors (+/-SD) was equally distributed within both groups (1.50+/-0.18 vs 1.59+/-0.17, P=0.74). Patients from the ESRD group ingested significantly higher cumulative doses of ST--AF (192+/-13.1 g vs 138+/- 16.3 g), Magnolia officinalis, (80.1+/-6.3 g vs 59.8+/-11.7 g), diethylpropion (14.7+/-1.4 g vs 10.0+/-1.4 g) and fenfluramine (14.1+/-1.6 g vs 8.7+/-1.3 g). In the ESRD group, some patients who had received steroids had a slower progression to ESRD than the others. In multiple regression analysis, ST-AF emerged as the only significant drug predicting the slope of the progression of renal failure. Moreover, hypothesizing a linear dose-response relationship, the risk of developing ESRD linearly increased with ST-AF doses. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between the cumulative ST-AF dose and the renal failure progression rate confirms that regular ingestion of Aristolochia sp. extracts is causally involved in the onset of chronic interstitial nephropathy leading to ESRD. (+info)