(25/472) Leisure-time activity is an important determinant of long-term weight maintenance after weight loss in the Sibutramine Trial on Obesity Reduction and Maintenance (STORM trial).
BACKGROUND: The success rate of long-term maintenance of weight loss in obese patients is usually low. To improve the success rate, determinants of long-term weight maintenance must be identified. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to identify determinants of long-term success in weight maintenance in obese subjects who completed the Sibutramine Trial on Obesity Reduction and Maintenance (n = 261), a multicenter European study of weight loss and weight maintenance in obesity that combines sibutramine treatment with dietary restriction and advice on exercise and behavior. DESIGN: We studied weight maintenance over 18 mo in subjects who had completed a 6-mo weight-loss phase. Factors included in the analysis were initial body weight, the percentage of initial body weight lost, dietary intake, various components of physical activity (measured with the Baecke questionnaire), the type of treatment (sibutramine or placebo), age, and sex. RESULTS: Multiple regression analysis identified treatment group (sibutramine or placebo), the percentage of the initial body weight that was lost during the 6-mo weight-loss phase, and the leisure-time physical activity index as significant determinants of weight maintenance. Together, these 3 factors explained 20% of the variation in weight maintenance (P < 0.001). Dietary factors, age, and sex were not significant predictors of weight-maintenance success in this study. CONCLUSIONS: Weight-maintenance success after weight loss is positively influenced by sibutramine treatment during weight maintenance, by a greater initial weight loss, and by a higher leisure-time physical activity index, which reflects higher levels of activities such as walking and cycling and lower levels of television viewing. (+info)
(26/472) Anti-obesity effect of Dioscorea nipponica Makino with lipase-inhibitory activity in rodents.
In the process of screening for pancreatic lipase inhibitors, which could be used as an anti-obesity measure, the methanol extract of Dioscorea nipponica Makino powder (DP) appeared to have potent inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic lipase with an IC50 value of 5-10 microg/ml, where the enzyme activity was assayed by using 4-methylumbelliferyl oleate as a substrate. Further purification of active components present in the herb generated dioscin that belongs to the saponin family. Dioscin and its aglycone, diosgenin, both suppressed the time-dependent increase of blood triacylglycerol level when orally injected with corn oil to mice, suggesting their inhibitory potential against fat absorption. Sprague-Dawley rats fed on a high-fat diet containing 5% Dioscorea nipponica Makino and 40% beef tallow gained significantly less body weight and adipose tissue than control animals fed on a high-fat diet alone during an 8-week experimental period (P<0.05). (+info)
(27/472) Addressing the potential risks associated with ephedra use: a review of recent efforts.
The appropriate amount of oversight for dietary supplements has been a subject of debate for over a decade. This debate has come to a head recently with herbal ephedra, which may be associated with adverse events including heart attack, stroke, seizure, and death. This article reviews and puts into context recent findings on the safety concerns related to ephedra, based primarily on adverse event reports. It presents the response from industry and the FDA in light of this evidence, and describes additional steps taken by other groups who believe that more restrictive action is required. The article concludes by observing the lack of explicit, shared criteria for determining whether a supplement is unsafe, and pointing out ways in which the experience with ephedra can be used constructively to address that problem. (+info)
(28/472) Effects of equal weight loss with orlistat and placebo on body fat and serum fatty acid composition and insulin resistance in obese women.
BACKGROUND: Dietary fat has been reported to influence insulin sensitivity. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine how identical weight loss (target: loss of 8% of body weight over 3-6 mo) in women taking orlistat or placebo combined with a hypocaloric diet influences body composition and insulin sensitivity. DESIGN: Forty-seven obese women [body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 32.1 +/- 0.4] were randomly assigned to receive either orlistat (120 mg 3 times daily; n = 23) or placebo (n = 24) with a hypocaloric diet. Whole-body insulin sensitivity (insulin clamp technique), serum fatty acids, and body composition (magnetic resonance imaging) were measured before and after weight loss. RESULTS: The groups did not differ significantly at baseline with respect to age, body weight, intraabdominal and subcutaneous fat volumes, or insulin sensitivity. Weight loss did not differ significantly between the orlistat (7.3 +/- 0.2 kg, or 8.3 +/- 0.1%) and placebo (7.4 +/- 0.2 kg, or 8.2 +/- 0.1%) groups. Insulin sensitivity improved significantly (P < 0.001) and similarly after weight loss in the orlistat (from 4.0 +/- 0.3 to 5.1 +/- 0.3 mg x kg fat-free mass(-1) x min(-1)) and placebo (from 4.4 +/- 0.4 to 5.4 +/- 0.4 mg x kg fat-free mass(-1) x min(-1)) groups. Intraabdominal fat and subcutaneous fat decreased significantly in both groups, but the ratio of the 2 decreased significantly only in the orlistat group. The proportion of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (20:3n-6) in serum phospholipids was inversely related to insulin sensitivity both before (r = -0.48, P < 0.001) and after (r = -0.46, P < 0.001) weight loss, but it did not change significantly in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Weight loss rather than inhibition of fat absorption enhances insulin sensitivity. A decrease in fat absorption by orlistat appears to favorably influence the ratio between intraabdominal and subcutaneous fat, which suggests that exogenous fat or its composition influences fat distribution. (+info)
(29/472) Three cases of liver injury caused by Sennomotokounou, a Chinese dietary supplement for weight loss.
Dietary supplements have become very popular worldwide because they are believed to be safe with few side effects. Here, we report three cases of liver injury caused by Sennomotokounou, a Chinese dietary supplement for weight reduction. All patients developed acute hepatotoxicity and recovered spontaneously after withdrawal of dietary product. This product contains fenfluramine, n-nitroso-fenfluramine, and dried thyroid tissue powder. In Japan, the regulatory agency for drug and food safety received 120 reports of hepatotoxicity associated with Sennomotokounou between 2000 and 2002. Physicians should inquire about the use of dietary supplements whenever patients present with unexplained acute liver dysfunction. (+info)
(30/472) Effects of short-period exercise training and orlistat therapy on body composition and maximal power production capacity in obese patients.
We examined the effects of weight loss induced by diet-orlistat (DO) and diet-orlistat combined with exercise (DOE) on maximal work rate production (Wmax) capacity in obese patients. Total of 24 obese patients were involved in this study. Twelve of them were subjected to DO therapy only and the remaining 12 patients participated in a regular aerobic exercise-training program in addition to DO therapy (DOE). Each patient performed two incremental ramp exercise tests up to exhaustion using an electromagnetically-braked cycle ergometer: one at the onset and one at the end of the 4th week. DOE therapy caused a significant decrease in total body weight: 101.5+/-17.4 kg (basal) vs 96.3+/-17.3 kg (4 wk) associated with a significant decrease in body fat mass: 45.0+/-10.5 kg (basal) vs 40.9+/-9.8 kg (4 wk). DO therapy also resulted in a significant decrease of total body weight 94.9+/-14.9 kg (basal) vs 91.6+/-13.5 kg (4 wk) associated with small but significant decreases in body fat mass: 37.7+/-5.6 kg (basal) to 36.0+/-6.2 kg (4 wk). Weight reduction achieved during DO therapy was not associated with increased Wmax capacity: 106+/-32 W (basal) vs 106+/-33 W (4 wk), while DOE therapy resulted in a markedly increased Wmax capacity: 109+/-39 W (basal) vs 138+/-30 W (4 wk). DO therapy combined with aerobic exercise training resulted in a significant reduction of fat mass tissue and markedly improved the aerobic fitness and Wmax capacities of obese patients. Considering this improvement within such a short period, physicians should consider applying an aerobic exercise-training program to sedentary obese patients for improving their physical fitness and thereby reduce the negative outcomes of obesity. (+info)
(31/472) The pathophysiology of faecal spotting in obese subjects during treatment with orlistat.
BACKGROUND: The intermittent loss of oil or liquid faeces ('spotting') is an adverse effect that occurs in obese patients during treatment with the lipase inhibitor orlistat; the pathophysiology is unknown. AIM: To investigate the effects of orlistat on anorectal sensorimotor function and continence. METHODS: Obese subjects susceptible to spotting were identified by an unblind trial of orlistat. Obese spotters (n = 15) and non-spotters (n = 16) completed a randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial of orlistat and placebo. Anorectal function was assessed by rectal barostat and anal manometry, together with a novel stool substitute retention test, a quantitative measurement of faecal continence. RESULTS: Orlistat increased stool volume and raised faecal fat and water. Treatment had no effect on anorectal motor function, but rectal sensation was reduced; on retention testing, the volume retained was increased. Subjects susceptible to spotting had lower rectal compliance, heightened rectal sensitivity and weaker resting sphincter pressure than non-spotters. On retention testing, gross continence was maintained; however, spotters lost small volumes of rectal contents during rectal filling. CONCLUSION: Treatment with orlistat has no direct adverse effects on anorectal function or continence. Spotting occurs during treatment with orlistat when patients with sub-clinical anorectal dysfunction are exposed to increased stool volume and altered stool composition. (+info)
(32/472) Lipase inhibition by orlistat: effects on gall-bladder kinetics and cholecystokinin release in obesity.
BACKGROUND: Obese subjects are at risk of developing gallstones as a result of the obese state and during weight reduction. AIM: To study whether orlistat, by lipase inhibition, impairs gall-bladder emptying, thus further predisposing weight-losing obese subjects to gallstone formation. METHODS: Patients entering a randomized clinical trial of 1 month of diet, followed by treatment with placebo, 3 x 60 mg orlistat or 3 x 120 mg orlistat, underwent gall-bladder emptying studies measured by ultrasound. Meal-induced cholecystokinin release and gall-bladder emptying were investigated at the start, at randomization and after 1 and 12 months. RESULTS: One month of dieting did not change gall-bladder emptying and cholecystokinin release. After 1 month, placebo treatment resulted in a decreased fasting volume of 11%, compared with increases of 26% and 47% with 60 and 120 mg orlistat, respectively. Gall-bladder emptying increased by 9% with placebo and decreased by 15% and 53% with 60 and 120 mg orlistat, respectively. Fasting cholecystokinin values and cholecystokinin release decreased significantly in the orlistat group. After 1 year, a persistent but attenuated effect of orlistat on gall-bladder emptying and cholecystokinin release remained. Three of 40 patients developed gallstones, two on placebo with major weight loss and one on 60 mg orlistat. CONCLUSIONS: One month of lipase inhibition by orlistat significantly impaired gall-bladder motility, which persisted to some extent after 1 year. Obese subjects with diabetes or hyperlipidaemia, who are more at risk of gallstones, should be followed carefully. (+info)