(1/1085) The forward rate of binding of surface-tethered reactants: effect of relative motion between two surfaces.
The reaction of molecules confined to two dimensions is of interest in cell adhesion, specifically for the reaction between cell surface receptors and substrate-bound ligand. We have developed a model to describe the overall rate of reaction of species that are bound to surfaces under relative motion, such that the Peclet number is order one or greater. The encounter rate between reactive species is calculated from solution of the two-dimensional convection-diffusion equation. The probability that each encounter will lead to binding depends on the intrinsic rate of reaction and the encounter duration. The encounter duration is obtained from the theory of first passage times. We find that the binding rate increases with relative velocity between the two surfaces, then reaches a plateau. This plateau indicates that the increase in the encounter rate is counterbalanced by the decrease in the encounter duration as the relative velocity increases. The binding rate is fully described by two dimensionless parameters, the Peclet number and the Damkohler number. We use this model to explain data from the cell adhesion literature by incorporating these rate laws into "adhesive dynamics" simulations to model the binding of a cell to a surface under flow. Leukocytes are known to display a "shear threshold effect" when binding selectin-coated surfaces under shear flow, defined as an increase in bind rate with shear; this effect, as calculated here, is due to an increase in collisions between receptor and ligand with increasing shear. The model can be used to explain other published data on the effect of wall shear rate on the binding of cells to surfaces, specifically the mild decrease in binding within a fixed area with increasing shear rate. (+info)
(2/1085) Adhesion energy of receptor-mediated interaction measured by elastic deformation.
We investigated the role of receptor binding affinity in surface adhesion. A sensitive technique was developed to measure the surface energy of receptor-mediated adhesion. The experimental system involved a functionalized elastic agarose bead resting on a functionalized glass coverslip. Attractive intersurface forces pulled the two surfaces together, deforming the bead to produce an enlarged contact area. The Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) model was used to relate the surface energy of the interaction to the elasticity of the bead and the area of contact. The surface energies for different combinations of modified surfaces in solution were obtained from reflection interference contrast microscopy (RICM) measurements of the contact area formed by the bead and the coverslip. Studies with surfaces functionalized with ligand-receptor pairs showed that the relationship between surface energy and the association constant of the ligand binding has two regimes. At low binding affinity, surface energy increased linearly with the association constant, while surface energy increased logarithmically with the association constant in the high affinity regime. (+info)
(3/1085) Steric effects of N-acyl group in O-methacryloyl-N-acyl tyrosines on the adhesiveness of unetched human dentin.
We have prepared various O-methacryloyl-N-acyl tyrosines (MAATY) to reveal the relationship between molecular structure near carboxylic acid and adhesive strength of MAATY-HEMA type adhesive resin to unetched dentin. In this study, we attempted to change the steric hindrance effect without changing the HLB value, i.e., introducing an iso-acyl group instead of n-acyl group into MAATY. O-methacryloyl-N-ethylbutyryl tyrosine (MIHTY) showed significantly lower adhesive strength when compared with O-methacryloyl-N-hexanoyl tyrosine even though both MAATY have the same HLB value. The possible explanation of the significantly different adhesive strength was that the 2-ethylbutyryl group in MIHTY was bulky, resulting in inhibition of the hydrogen bonding of the carboxylic group. The HLB value is independent of the steric effect of molecular structure, and thus the steric factor should be taken into consideration for the explanation of different adhesive strengths within the adhesive monomers having the same HLB value but different molecular structures. (+info)
(4/1085) Adhesion of adhesive resin to dental precious metal alloys. Part I. New precious metal alloys with base metals for resin bonding.
New dental precious metal alloys for resin bonding without alloy surface modification were developed by adding base metals (In, Zn, or Sn). Before this, binary alloys of Au, Ag, Cu, or Pd containing In, Zn, or Sn were studied for water durability and bonding strength with 4-META resin. The adhesion ability of the binary alloys was improved by adding In equivalent to 15% of Au content, Zn equivalent to 20% of Ag content, and In, Zn, or Sn equivalent to 5% of Cu content. There was no addition effect of the base metals on Pd, however 15% of In addition improved adhesion with Pd-based alloys containing equi-atomic % of Cu and Pd. The alloy surfaces were analyzed by XPS and showed that oxides such as In2O3, ZnO, or SnO play an important role in improving the adhesive ability of the alloys. (+info)
(5/1085) Adhesion of adhesive resin to dental precious metal alloys. Part II. The relationship between surface structure of Au-In alloys and adhesive ability with 4-META resin.
Adhesion of 4-META to Au-In alloy was improved by adding In equivalent to .15% of Au content. On the basis of the results of Au-In alloys analyzed by XPS, the present study investigated the reason why adhesion of the Au-In alloy was improved. The O 1s spectrum could be separated into three oxygen chemical states, In2O3, chemisorbed H2O, and physisorbed H2O. The amount of chemisorbed H2O decreased remarkably with increasing amount of In. It is considered that the poor adhesive ability of the pure gold and alloys containing only small amounts of In was due to the chemisorbed H2O molecules and insufficient indium oxide on the alloy surface. It was established that excellent adhesion requires an oxide with chemical affinity for 4-META to cover at least 50% of the alloy surface. (+info)
(6/1085) Coating of extracorporeal circuit with heparin does not prevent sequestration of propofol in vitro.
Propofol is sequestered in extracorporeal circuits, but the factors responsible for the phenomenon are mostly unknown. We have compared two extracorporeal circuits (oxygenators, reservoirs and tubings) coated with heparin with two corresponding uncoated circuits for their capacity to sequester propofol in vitro. Three experiments were conducted with each circuit. The circuit was primed with a mixture of Ringer's acetate solution and whole blood, and the study conditions (pump flow, temperature, pH) were standardized. Propofol was added to the solution to achieve a concentration of 2 micrograms ml-1. These studies were followed with concentrations of 10- and 100-fold to assess possible saturation of propofol binding. Serial samples were obtained from the circulating solution for measurement of propofol concentration. Propofol concentrations decreased to 22-32% of the initial predicted concentration of 2 micrograms ml-1 in the circuits (no significant difference between circuits). With greater concentrations, the circuits did not become saturated with propofol, even with the highest predicted concentration of 200 micrograms ml-1. We conclude that propofol was sequestered in extracorporeal circuits in vitro, irrespective of coating the circuit with heparin. (+info)
(7/1085) An ex vivo investigation into the bond strength of orthodontic brackets and adhesive systems.
The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of Adhesive Precoated Brackets (APC) with that of two types of uncoated bracket bases, Straight-Wire and Dyna-Lock. Two types of orthodontic adhesives were used, Transbond XT and Right-On. Three different curing times were evaluated with the APC brackets in order to find the best. Adhesive remnants on the enamel surface following debond were evaluated using the Adhesive Remnant Index (Artun and Bergland, 1984). Bond strengths ranged from 11.00 to 22.08 MPa. For both types of brackets Transbond produced a significant increase in bond strength compared to Right-On. The Dyna-Lock/Right-On combination produced the poorest results. APC brackets cured for 40 s had similar bond strengths to uncoated brackets fixed by means of Transbond. Overall, 79 per cent of specimens had less than half the tooth surface covered with adhesive following debond. Significantly more adhesive remained on tooth surfaces following debond of the Straight-Wire/Right-On group than any other bracket/adhesive combination. Bond strengths were higher with light-cured Transbond than with chemically-cured Right-On. When Transbond is used in association with APC brackets a 40-second cure time is recommended. (+info)
(8/1085) The influence of epitope availability on atomic-force microscope studies of antigen-antibody interactions.
The ability of the atomic-force microscope (AFM) to detect interaction forces between individual biological molecules has recently been demonstrated. In this study, force measurements have been obtained between AFM probes functionalized with the beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin (betahCG) and surfaces functionalized with anti-betahCG antibody. A comparison of the obtained results with previous anti-ferritin antibody-binding data identifies differences when the antigen molecule expresses only a single epitope (betahCG), rather than multiple epitopes (ferritin), for the monoclonal antibodies employed. Specifically, the probability of observing probe-sample adhesion is found to be higher when the antigen expresses multiple epitopes. However, the periodic force observed in the adhesive-force distribution, due to the rupture of single antigen-antibody interactions, is found to be larger and more clearly observed for the mono-epitopic system. Hence, these findings indicate the potential of the AFM to distinguish between multivalent and monovalent antibody-antigen interactions, and demonstrate the influence of the number of expressed epitopes upon such binding studies. (+info)