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  • Anatomia 168 domande A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.
    • Regioni Del Corpo 15 domande Anatomical areas of the body.
    • Sistema Muscoloscheletrico 47 domande The MUSCLES, bones (BONE AND BONES), and CARTILAGE of the body.
    • Apparato Digerente 16 domande A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
    • Apparato Respiratorio 4 domande The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
    • Apparato Urogenitale 14 domande All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.
    • Sistema Endocrino 1 quesito The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.
    • Sistema Cardiovascolare 6 domande The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
    • Sistema Nervoso 7 domande The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
    • Organi Del Senso 3 domande
    • Tessuti 7 domande Collections of differentiated CELLS, such as EPITHELIUM; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; MUSCLES; and NERVE TISSUE. Tissues are cooperatively arranged to form organs with specialized functions such as RESPIRATION; DIGESTION; REPRODUCTION; MOVEMENT; and others.
    • Cellule 8 domande The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.
      • Acinar Cells 0 domande Cells lining the saclike dilatations known as acini of various glands or the lungs.
      • Cellule Producenti Anticorpi 0 domande Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
      • Cellule Presentanti L'Antigene 0 domande A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
      • Blastomeri 0 domande Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.
      • Cellule Del Sangue 8 domande The cells found in the body fluid circulating throughout the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
      • Cellule Del Midollo Osseo 0 domande Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
      • Cellule Coltivate 0 domande Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
      • Cellule Immobilizzate 0 domande Microbial, plant, or animal cells which are immobilized by attachment to solid structures, usually a column matrix. A common use of immobilized cells is in biotechnology for the bioconversion of a substrate to a particular product. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
      • Strutture Cellulari 0 domande Components of a cell.
      • Cellule Cromaffini 0 domande Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.
      • Cellule Del Tessuto Connettivo 0 domande A group of cells that includes FIBROBLASTS, cartilage cells, ADIPOCYTES, smooth muscle cells, and bone cells.
      • Endocrine Cells 0 domande Secretory cells of the ductless glands. They secrete HORMONES directly into the blood circulation (internal secretion) to be carried to the target cells. The secreted chemicals can be PEPTIDES; STEROIDS; NEUROPEPTIDES; or BIOGENIC AMINES.
      • Cellule Epiteliali 0 domande Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) from mesoderm.
      • Cellule Eritroidi 0 domande The series of cells in the red blood cell lineage at various stages of differentiation.
      • Cellule Eucariotiche 0 domande Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.
      • Cellule Germinali 0 domande The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
      • Cellule Giganti 0 domande Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
      • Hepatic Stellate Cells 0 domande Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.
      • Mesophyll Cells 0 domande Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.
      • Cellule Muscolari 0 domande Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.
      • Cellule Mieloidi 0 domande The classes of BONE MARROW-derived blood cells in the monocytic series (MONOCYTES and their precursors) and granulocytic series (GRANULOCYTES and their precursors).
      • Mioblasti 0 domande Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
      • Neoplastic Cells, Circulating 0 domande Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.
      • Nevroglia 0 domande The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
      • Neuroni 0 domande The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
        • Fibre Postgangliari Del Sistema Autonomo 0 domande Nerve fibers which project from cell bodies of autonomic ganglia to synapses on target organs.
        • Fibre Pregangliari Del Sistema Autonomo 0 domande Nerve fibers which project from the central nervous system to autonomic ganglia. In the sympathetic division most preganglionic fibers originate with neurons in the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord, exit via ventral roots from upper thoracic through lower lumbar segments, and project to the paravertebral ganglia; there they either terminate in synapses or continue through the splanchnic nerves to the prevertebral ganglia. In the parasympathetic division the fibers originate in neurons of the brain stem and sacral spinal cord. In both divisions the principal transmitter is acetylcholine but peptide cotransmitters may also be released.
        • Assoni 0 domande Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
        • Cholinergic Neurons 0 domande Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE.
        • Dendriti 0 domande Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
        • Dopaminergic Neurons 0 domande Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.
        • GABAergic Neurons 0 domande Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.
        • Coni Di Crescita 0 domande Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.
        • Interneuroni 0 domande Most generally any neurons which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose axons remain within a particular brain region as contrasted with projection neurons which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
        • Corpi Di Lewy 0 domande Intracytoplasmic, eosinophilic, round to elongated inclusions found in vacuoles of injured or fragmented neurons. The presence of Lewy bodies is the histological marker of the degenerative changes in LEWY BODY DISEASE and PARKINSON DISEASE but they may be seen in other neurological conditions. They are typically found in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but they are also seen in the basal forebrain, hypothalamic nuclei, and neocortex.
        • Mirror Neurons 0 domande Neurons that fire when an animal acts or observes the same action of another thus coding the motor response. They were originally discovered in the premotor and parietal cortex of the monkey and studies have shown that neurons that have a similar mechanism are present in humans. Mirror neurons are theorized to be related to social cognition.
        • Fibre Nervose Mielinate 0 domande A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
        • Neuriti 0 domande In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
        • Neurofibrille 0 domande The delicate interlacing threads, formed by aggregations of neurofilaments and neurotubules, coursing through the cytoplasm of the body of a neuron and extending from one dendrite into another or into the axon.
        • Neuroni Afferenti 0 domande Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
          • Hair Cells, Auditory 0 domande Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.
          • Cellule Ciliate Vestibolari 0 domande Sensory cells in the acoustic maculae with their apical STEREOCILIA embedded in a gelatinous OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE. These hair cells are stimulated by the movement of otolithic membrane, and impulses are transmitted via the VESTIBULAR NERVE to the BRAIN STEM. Hair cells in the saccule and those in the utricle sense linear acceleration in vertical and horizontal directions, respectively.
          • Cellule Corneificate Posteriori 0 domande Neurons in the posterior (dorsal) horn of the spinal cord whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the central nervous system. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the white matter ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.
          • Retinal Neurons 0 domande Nerve cells of the RETINA in the pathway of transmitting light signals to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include the outer layer of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS, the intermediate layer of RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS and AMACRINE CELLS, and the internal layer of RETINAL GANGLION CELLS.
            • Cellule Amacrine 0 domande INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA. They integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer.
            • Photoreceptor Cells 0 domande Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
            • Cellule Bipolari Della Retina 0 domande INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA containing two processes. They receive inputs from the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and send outputs to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS. The bipolar cells also make lateral connections in the retina with the RETINAL HORIZONTAL CELLS and with the AMACRINE CELLS.
            • Cellule Gangliari Della Retina 0 domande Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
            • Cellule Orizzontali Della Retina 0 domande NEURONS in the inner nuclear layer of the RETINA that synapse with both the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and the RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS, as well as other horizontal cells. The horizontal cells modulate the sensory signal.
          • Sensory Receptor Cells 0 domande Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
        • Neuroni Efferenti 0 domande Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
        • Neuropilo 0 domande A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.
        • Corpi Di Nissl 0 domande Subcellular structures found in nerve cell bodies and DENDRITES. They consist of granular endoplasmic reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH) and RIBOSOMES.
        • Neuroni Nitrergici 0 domande Nerve cells where transmission is mediated by NITRIC OXIDE.
        • Adrenergic Neurons 0 domande Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is EPINEPHRINE.
        • Cellule Di Purkinje 0 domande The output neurons of the cerebellar cortex.
        • Cellule Piramidali 0 domande Projection neurons in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.
        • Serotonergic Neurons 0 domande Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is SEROTONIN.
      • Cellule Ossifile 0 domande Large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askenazy cells.
      • Pancreatic Stellate Cells 0 domande Star-shaped, myofibroblast-like cells located in the periacinar, perivascular, and periductal regions of the EXOCRINE PANCREAS. They play a key role in the pathobiology of FIBROSIS; PANCREATITIS; and PANCREATIC CANCER.
      • Periciti 0 domande Unique slender cells with multiple processes extending along the capillary vessel axis and encircling the vascular wall, also called mural cells. Pericytes are imbedded in the BASEMENT MEMBRANE shared with the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessel. Pericytes are important in maintaining vessel integrity, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling.
      • Fagociti 0 domande Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.
      • Plant Cells 0 domande Basic functional unit of plants.
      • Cellule Procariotiche 0 domande Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.
      • Protoplasti 0 domande
      • Cellule Di Reed-Stemberg 0 domande Large cells, usually multinucleate, whose presence is a common histologic characteristic of classical HODGKIN DISEASE.
      • Sferoplasti 0 domande Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.
      • Spores 0 domande The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
      • Cellule Staminali 0 domande Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
      • Thymocytes 0 domande HEMATOPOIETIC PROGENITOR CELLS that have migrated to the THYMUS where they differentiate into T-LYMPHOCYTES. Thymocytes are classified into maturational stages based on the expression of CELL SURFACE ANTIGENS.
    • Liquidi E Secrezioni 13 domande Liquid substances produced by living organisms to fulfill specific functions or excreted as waste.
    • Anatomia Animale 5 domande Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
    • Sistema Stomatognatico 4 domande The mouth, teeth, jaws, pharynx, and related structures as they relate to mastication, deglutition, and speech.
    • Sistema Ematico E Immunitario 2 domande Organs involved in the production of BLOOD, including the cellular and the molecular components essential in providing defense against foreign organisms or substances.
    • Strutture Embrionali 1 quesito The anatomical parts that make up an organism in the early stages of development.
    • Apparato Tegumentario 1 quesito The outer covering of the body composed of the SKIN and the skin appendages, which are the HAIR, the NAILS; and the SEBACEOUS GLANDS and the SWEAT GLANDS and their ducts.
    • Plant Structures 0 domande The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
    • Fungal Structures 0 domande The parts of fungi.
    • Bacterial Structures 1 quesito The parts of bacteria.
    • Viral Structures 0 domande The structural parts of the VIRION.
  • Organismi 49 domande Any living biological entity, such as an animal, plant, fungus, or bacterium.
  • Malattie 324 domande Any impairment of normal physiological function affecting all or part of an organism, esp a specific pathological change caused by infection, stress, etc, producing characteristic symptoms; illness or sickness in general.
  • Sostanze chimiche e Farmaci 202 domande Any substance used in or resulting from a reaction involving changes to atoms or molecules, especially one derived artificially for practical use and any synthetic, semisynthetic, or natural chemical substance used in the treatment, prevention, or diagnosis of disease, or for other medical reasons.
  • Tecniche ed apparecchiature analitiche, diagnostiche e terapeutiche 109 domande
  • Psichiatria e Psicologia 14 domande The branches of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness and the scientific study of all forms of human and animal behaviour, sometimes concerned with the methods through which behaviour can be modified.
  • Scienze biologiche 31 domande
  • Scienze naturali 17 domande
  • Antropologia, Formazione, Sociologia e fenomeni sociali 3 domande
  • Tecnologia, Industria, Agricoltura 4 domande
  • Discipline umanistiche 0 domande The study of literature, philosophy, and the arts.
  • Scienza dell'informazione 0 domande The field of knowledge, theory, and technology dealing with the collection of facts and figures, and the processes and methods involved in their manipulation, storage, dissemination, publication, and retrieval. It includes the fields of COMMUNICATION; PUBLISHING; LIBRARY SCIENCE; and informatics.
  • Gruppi di persone 8 domande
  • Assistenza sanitaria 34 domande
  • Caratteristiche della Pubblicazione 4 domande
  • Luoghi geografici 7 domande The study of the natural features of the earth's surface, including topography, climate, soil, vegetation, etc, and man's response to them.
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