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  • Anatomie 93 questions
  • Organismes 38 questions Any living biological entity, such as an animal, plant, fungus, or bacterium.
    • Eukaryota 3 questions
    • Archéobactéries 0 questions One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
    • Bactéries 14 questions Bactéries, gram-positif, formant des endospores. Elles comprennent les genres suivants : BACILLUS ; CLOSTRIDIUM ; MICROMONOSPORA ; SACCHAROPOLYSPORA et STREPTOMYCES.
    • Virus 2 questions Petits agents infectieux aux génomes constitués, soit d'ADN, soit d'ARN (jamais des deux), sans métabolisme propre et dans l'incapacité de se multiplier en dehors des cellules vivantes.
      • Arbovirus 0 questions Virus des Arthropodes. Ces virus sont transmis de vertébrés à vertébrés par un arthropode. Leur classification n'est pas taxonomique. Ils comprennent des virus appartenant à différentes familles dont : ARENAVIRIDAE, BUNYAVIRIDAE, REOVIRIDAE, TOGAVIRIDAE et FLAVIVIRIDAE (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
      • Virus D'Archaea 0 questions Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.
      • Bactériophages 0 questions Virus dont l'hôte est une bactérie.
      • Virus Défectifs 0 questions Virus incapable de se multiplier ou de former ses protéines de capside. Certains sont des virus défectifs hôtes dépendants, ils peuvent se multiplier dans les systèmes cellulaires qui leur apportent la fonction génétique manquante. D'autres, appelés VIRUS SATELLITES, ne peuvent se multiplier qu'en présence d'un virus helper (virus auxiliaire).
      • Virus 0 questions Petits agents infectieux aux génomes constitués, soit d'ADN, soit d'ARN (jamais des deux), sans métabolisme propre et dans l'incapacité de se multiplier en dehors des cellules vivantes.
      • Virus Auxiliaire 0 questions Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
      • Virus Hépatite 0 questions Tout virus entraînant une inflammation du foie. Ces virus sont des virus à ADN et à ARN, présents chez l'homme et chez l'animal.
      • Virus Des Insectes 0 questions Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.
      • Virus Oncolytiques 0 questions Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
      • Virus Des Plantes 0 questions Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
        • Badnavirus 0 questions A genus of DNA plant viruses with bacilliform morphology. Transmission in clonally-propagated plants is by vegetative propagation of infected plant materials. Transmission in nature is by mealybugs, seeds, and pollen. The type species is Commelina yellow mottle virus.
        • Bromoviridae 0 questions A family of RNA plant viruses with a wide host range in crops and horticultural species. All viruses are readily transmitted by mechanical means and some by insects and pollen. The genera include: ALFAMOVIRUS; BROMOVIRUS; CUCUMOVIRUS; ILARVIRUS; and OLEAVIRUS.
        • Caulimoviridae 0 questions A family of DNA plant viruses with isometric or bacilliform virions and no envelope. The host ranges of most species are narrow. There are six genera: CAULIMOVIRUS; BADNAVIRUS; Cavemovirus; Soymovirus; Petuvirus; and TUNGROVIRUS.
        • Closteroviridae 0 questions A family of plant viruses containing the largest single-stranded RNA genomes. Infections typically involve yellowing and necrosis, particularly affecting the phloem.
        • Comoviridae 0 questions A family of non-enveloped RNA plant viruses, transmitted by biological vectors and experimentally by mechanical inoculation. There are three genera: COMOVIRUS; FABAVIRUS; and NEPOVIRUS.
        • Flexiviridae 0 questions A family of RNA plant viruses that infect a wide range of herbaceous and woody plant species. There are at least eight genera including POTEXVIRUS and CARLAVIRUS, both of which are highly immunogenic.
        • Geminiviridae 0 questions A family of plant viruses where the VIRION possesses an unusual morphology consisting of a pair of isometric particles. Transmission occurs via leafhoppers or whitefly. Some viruses cause economically important diseases in cultivated plants. There are four genera: Mastrevirus, Curtovirus, Topocuvirus, and BEGOMOVIRUS.
        • Luteoviridae 0 questions A family of RNA plant viruses infecting disparate plant families. They are transmitted by specific aphid vectors. There are three genera: LUTEOVIRUS; Polerovirus; and Enamovirus.
        • Virus Mosaïque 0 questions Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
          • Alfamovirus 0 questions A genus of the family BROMOVIRIDAE with a wide host range. Transmission is by aphids and the type species is ALFALFA MOSAIC VIRUS.
            • Virus Mosaïque Luzerne 0 questions The type species of the genus ALFAMOVIRUS that is non-persistently transmitted by aphids.
          • Bromovirus 0 questions A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.
          • Caulimovirus 0 questions A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.
          • Comovirus 0 questions A genus of plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE in which the bipartite genome is encapsidated in separate icosahedral particles. Mosaic and mottle symptoms are characteristic, and transmission is exclusively by leaf-feeding beetles. Cowpea mosaic virus is the type species.
          • Cucumovirus 0 questions A genus of plant viruses of the family BROMOVIRIDAE, which infect cucurbits and solanaceous plants. Transmission occurs via aphids in a non-persistent manner, and also via seeds. The type species Cucumber mosaic virus, a CUCUMOVIRUS, should not be confused with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, a TOBAMOVIRUS.
          • Potyvirus 0 questions A large genus of plant viruses of the family POTYVIRIDAE which infect mainly plants of the Solanaceae. Transmission is primarily by aphids in a non-persistent manner. The type species is potato virus Y.
          • Tobamovirus 0 questions A genus of plant viruses in which the virion is a rigid filament. Transmission is by mechanical inoculation or seed. The type species is TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS.
          • Tymovirus 0 questions A genus of plant viruses, in the family TYMOVIRIDAE, possessing a narrow host range that includes CRUCIFERAE. Transmission occurs by BEETLES and mechanical inoculation.
        • Nanoviridae 0 questions A family of DNA viruses infecting plants and transmitted by APHIDS. Genera include NANOVIRUS and BABUVIRUS.
        • Phycodnaviridae 0 questions A family of DNA plant viruses that infect eukaryotic algae.
        • Potyviridae 0 questions A family of RNA plant viruses with flexuous, filamentous particles and consisting of six genera: POTYVIRUS; Ipomovirus; Macluravirus; Rymovirus; Tritimovirus; and Bymovirus. All members of the family form cytoplasmic cylindrical inclusion bodies during infection.
        • Sequiviridae 0 questions A family of monopartite RNA plant viruses resembling picornaviruses and containing two genera: SEQUIVIRUS and WAIKAVIRUS. Transmission is by aphids or leafhoppers and requires a helper protein.
        • Tenuivirus 0 questions A genus of RNA plant viruses as yet unassigned to any family. Plant hosts are all in the family Poaceae. Each species is transmitted by a particular species of planthopper. The type species is Rice stripe virus.
        • Tombusviridae 0 questions Famille de virus des plantes à ARN infectant les dicotyledons. La transmission est principalement mécanique et à partir de matériel végétal . Dans toutes les espèces on retrouve des corps d'inclusions multivésiculaires. Il y a au moins huit genres : Aureusvirus, Avenavirus, CARMOVIRUS, Dianthovirus, Machlomovirus, Necrovirus, Panicovirus, et TOMBUSVIRUS.
        • Tospovirus 0 questions A genus of plant viruses in the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Tomato spotted wilt virus is the type species. Transmission occurs by at least nine species of thrips.
        • Virus Tungro 0 questions A genus of DNA plant viruses in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE. The sole species, Rice tungro bacilliform virus, shows 25% identity with BADNAVIRUS. It is transmitted by leafhoppers with the assistance of RICE TUNGRO SPHERICAL VIRUS.
        • Tymoviridae 0 questions A family of icosahedral, non-enveloped, RNA plant viruses comprised of three genera: TYMOVIRUS, Marafivirus and Maculavirus.
      • Provirus 0 questions Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
      • Virus Recombinant 0 questions Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.
      • Virus2 0 questions Petits agents infectieux aux génomes constitués, soit d'ADN, soit d'ARN (jamais des deux), sans métabolisme propre et dans l'incapacité de se multiplier en dehors des cellules vivantes.
      • Virus Vertébrés 0 questions Virus infectant l'homme ainsi que d'autres vertébrés.
      • Virion 0 questions The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
      • Viroïde 0 questions A group of pathogens comprising the smallest known agents of infectious disease. They are unencapsulated and are capable of replicating autonomously in susceptible cells. Positively identified viroids composed of single-stranded RNA have been isolated from higher plants, but the existence of DNA viroids pathogenic to animals is suspected.
      • Virus Non Classés 0 questions Virus dont les rapports taxonomiques n'ont pas été établis.
    • Organism Forms 0 questions
  • Maladies 170 questions Any impairment of normal physiological function affecting all or part of an organism, esp a specific pathological change caused by infection, stress, etc, producing characteristic symptoms; illness or sickness in general.
  • Produits chimiques et pharmaceutiques 79 questions Any substance used in or resulting from a reaction involving changes to atoms or molecules, especially one derived artificially for practical use and any synthetic, semisynthetic, or natural chemical substance used in the treatment, prevention, or diagnosis of disease, or for other medical reasons.
  • Techniques et équipements analytiques, diagnostiques et thérapeutiques 36 questions
  • Psychiatrie et psychologie 14 questions The branches of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness and the scientific study of all forms of human and animal behaviour, sometimes concerned with the methods through which behaviour can be modified.
  • Phénomènes et processus 17 questions
  • Disciplines et professions 10 questions
  • Anthropologie, enseignement, sociologie et phénoménes sociaux 5 questions
  • Technologie, industrie et agriculture 1 question
  • Sciences humaines 6 questions
  • Sciences De L'Information 1 question Champ de la connaissance, théorie, et technologie, traitant de la collection de faits et de calculs, ainsi que des processus et des méthodes impliqués dans leur manipulation, stockage, diffusion, publication, et recherche. Il inclut la communication, l'édition, la bibliothéconomie, et l'informatique.
  • Individus 5 questions
  • Santé 69 questions
  • Caractéristiques d'une publication 2 questions
  • Lieux géographiques 9 questions The study of the natural features of the earth's surface, including topography, climate, soil, vegetation, etc, and man's response to them.
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