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  • Anatomie 93 questions
  • Organismes 37 questions Any living biological entity, such as an animal, plant, fungus, or bacterium.
    • Eukaryota 3 questions
      • Alveolata 0 questions
      • Amoebozoa 0 questions
      • Animaux 0 questions Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, Animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, Animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain Eukarya.
        • Groupes Animaux 0 questions Animaux groupés selon les populations écologiques, morphologiques ou génétiques.
        • Chordés 0 questions Regroupe des animaux présentant une épine dorsale développée.
        • Invertébrés 0 questions Animals that have no spinal column.
          • Annelida 0 questions Phylum de métazoaires invertébrés comportant les vers segmentés, et incluant les annélides de mer (POLYCHAETA), les annélides d'eau douce, les vers de terre (OLIGOCHAETA), et les SANGSUES. Seules les sangsues sont d'intérêt médical.
          • Arthropodes 0 questions Members of the phylum Arthropoda of the animal kingdom, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs, and including among other classes, the ARACHNIDA and INSECTS, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man. (Dorland, 27th ed)
          • Bryozoa 0 questions A phylum of small sessile aquatic animals living as small tufted colonies. Some appear like hydroids or corals, but their internal structure is more advanced. Most bryozoans are matlike, forming thin encrustations on rocks, shells, or kelp. (Storer & Stebbins, General Zoology, 6th ed, p443)
          • Chordés Invertébrés 0 questions A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla Cephalochordata, UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage.
          • Cnidaria 0 questions A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.
          • Ctenophora 0 questions Phylum of marine colenterates characterized by eight comb rows of fused cilia on the body surface. In contrast to CNIDARIA they lack stinging cells, but they are voracious predators and possess sticky cells (colloblasts) for capturing prey. Most species are transparent and many exhibit bioluminescence.
          • Echinodermata 0 questions A phylum of the most familiar marine invertebrates. Its class Stelleroidea contains two subclasses, the Asteroidea (the STARFISH or sea stars) and the Ophiuroidea (the brittle stars, also called basket stars and serpent stars). There are 1500 described species of STARFISH found throughout the world. The second class, Echinoidea, contains about 950 species of SEA URCHINS, heart urchins, and sand dollars. A third class, Holothuroidea, comprises about 900 echinoderms known as SEA CUCUMBERS. Echinoderms are used extensively in biological research. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp773-826)
          • Helminthes 0 questions Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.
          • Mollusca 0 questions A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
            • Bivalvia 0 questions A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.
              • Arcidae 0 questions A family of ark shell mollusks, in the class BIVALVIA. They have soft bodies with platelike GILLS enclosed within two shells hinged together.
              • Cardiidae 0 questions A family of bivalve MOLLUSKS with heart-shaped shells, commonly known as cockles. Unlike most BIVALVES, cockles are hermaphroditic.
              • Corbicula 0 questions A genus of freshwater clams, in the family Corbiculidae, class BIVALVIA. It originated in Asia but was introduced in North America and is now found throughout the United States.
              • Dreissena 0 questions A genus of mussels in the family Dreissenidae, class BIVALVIA. They are found in both fresh and brackish water and are not native to North America. Accidentally introduced into the Great Lakes in 1986, they now proliferate widely throughout the United States.
              • Mercenaria 0 questions A genus of hard-shelled clams in the family Veneridae, class BIVALVIA, commonly called quahogs. They are found just below the surface in the subtidal or lower intertidal coastal waters.
              • Mya 0 questions A genus of soft-shell clams in the family Myidae, class BIVALVIA.
              • Mytilidae 0 questions A family of marine MUSSELS in the class BIVALVIA.
              • Ostreidae 0 questions A family of marine mollusks in the class BIVALVIA, commonly known as oysters. They have a rough irregular shell closed by a single adductor muscle.
              • Pectinidae 0 questions A large family of mollusks in the class BIVALVIA, known commonly as scallops. They possess flat, almost circular shells and are found in all seas from shallow water to great depths.
                • Pecten 0 questions A genus of scallops in the family PECTINIDAE, class BIVALVIA. The shell is usually radially ribbed.
              • Pinctada 0 questions A genus of pearl oysters in the family Pteriidae, class BIVALVIA. Both cultured and natural pearls are obtained from species in the genus. They are distinct from the distantly related, edible true oysters of the family OSTREIDAE.
              • Spisula 0 questions A genus of surf clams in the family Mactridae, class BIVALVIA. They are often used in EMBRYOLOGY research.
              • Unionidae 0 questions A family of freshwater mussels in the class BIVALVIA. They differ from ZEBRA MUSSELS in that they are larger and posses a larval stage called glochidia, which requires attachment to the GILLS or fins of particular species of FISHES.
            • Cephalopoda 0 questions A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SQUID; CUTTLEFISH; OCTOPUS; and NAUTILUS. These marine animals are the most highly organized of all the mollusks.
            • Gastropoda 0 questions A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.
            • Polyplacophora 0 questions A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of flattened, elongated marine mollusks, commonly called chitons. They are unique in that they possess seven or eight separate shell plates.
          • Parasite 0 questions Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
          • Placozoa 0 questions
          • Porifera 0 questions The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.
          • Tardigrada 0 questions
      • Choanoflagellata 0 questions
      • Cryptophyta 0 questions A division (some say phylum or class) of the ALGAE, characterized by biflagellated cells and found in both freshwater and marine environments. Pigmentation varies but only one CHLOROPLAST is present. Unique structures include a nucleomorph and ejectosomes.
      • Diplomonadida 0 questions An order of protozoa characterized by the presence of one or two karyomastigonts and either two-fold rotational or mirror symmetry.
      • Euglenozoa 0 questions
      • Champignons 2 questions A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
      • Haptophyta 0 questions
      • Mésomycétozoaires 0 questions A class of parasitic and saprophytic microorganisms whose origins can be traced near the animal-fungal divergence. Members of the class are typically pathogens of FISHES, but there are exceptions. There are two recognized orders: Icthyophonida and Dermocystida.
      • Oxymonadida 0 questions
      • Parabasalidea 0 questions
      • Plantes 1 question Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of the kingdom Plantae. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alteration of haploid and diploid generations.
      • Retortamonadidae 0 questions
      • Rhizaria 0 questions
      • Stramenopiles 0 questions
    • Archéobactéries 0 questions One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
    • Bactéries 14 questions Bactéries, gram-positif, formant des endospores. Elles comprennent les genres suivants : BACILLUS ; CLOSTRIDIUM ; MICROMONOSPORA ; SACCHAROPOLYSPORA et STREPTOMYCES.
    • Virus 2 questions Petits agents infectieux aux génomes constitués, soit d'ADN, soit d'ARN (jamais des deux), sans métabolisme propre et dans l'incapacité de se multiplier en dehors des cellules vivantes.
    • Organism Forms 0 questions
  • Maladies 166 questions Any impairment of normal physiological function affecting all or part of an organism, esp a specific pathological change caused by infection, stress, etc, producing characteristic symptoms; illness or sickness in general.
  • Produits chimiques et pharmaceutiques 79 questions Any substance used in or resulting from a reaction involving changes to atoms or molecules, especially one derived artificially for practical use and any synthetic, semisynthetic, or natural chemical substance used in the treatment, prevention, or diagnosis of disease, or for other medical reasons.
  • Techniques et équipements analytiques, diagnostiques et thérapeutiques 36 questions
  • Psychiatrie et psychologie 14 questions The branches of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness and the scientific study of all forms of human and animal behaviour, sometimes concerned with the methods through which behaviour can be modified.
  • Phénomènes et processus 17 questions
  • Disciplines et professions 9 questions
  • Anthropologie, enseignement, sociologie et phénoménes sociaux 5 questions
  • Technologie, industrie et agriculture 1 question
  • Sciences humaines 6 questions
  • Sciences De L'Information 1 question Champ de la connaissance, théorie, et technologie, traitant de la collection de faits et de calculs, ainsi que des processus et des méthodes impliqués dans leur manipulation, stockage, diffusion, publication, et recherche. Il inclut la communication, l'édition, la bibliothéconomie, et l'informatique.
  • Individus 5 questions
  • Santé 68 questions
  • Caractéristiques d'une publication 2 questions
  • Lieux géographiques 9 questions The study of the natural features of the earth's surface, including topography, climate, soil, vegetation, etc, and man's response to them.
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