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  • Anatomie 93 questions
  • Organismes 37 questions Any living biological entity, such as an animal, plant, fungus, or bacterium.
    • Eukaryota 3 questions
      • Alveolata 0 questions
      • Amoebozoa 0 questions
      • Animaux 0 questions Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, Animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, Animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain Eukarya.
        • Groupes Animaux 0 questions Animaux groupés selon les populations écologiques, morphologiques ou génétiques.
        • Chordés 0 questions Regroupe des animaux présentant une épine dorsale développée.
        • Invertébrés 0 questions Animals that have no spinal column.
          • Annelida 0 questions Phylum de métazoaires invertébrés comportant les vers segmentés, et incluant les annélides de mer (POLYCHAETA), les annélides d'eau douce, les vers de terre (OLIGOCHAETA), et les SANGSUES. Seules les sangsues sont d'intérêt médical.
          • Arthropodes 0 questions Members of the phylum Arthropoda of the animal kingdom, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs, and including among other classes, the ARACHNIDA and INSECTS, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man. (Dorland, 27th ed)
          • Bryozoa 0 questions A phylum of small sessile aquatic animals living as small tufted colonies. Some appear like hydroids or corals, but their internal structure is more advanced. Most bryozoans are matlike, forming thin encrustations on rocks, shells, or kelp. (Storer & Stebbins, General Zoology, 6th ed, p443)
          • Chordés Invertébrés 0 questions A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla Cephalochordata, UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage.
          • Cnidaria 0 questions A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.
          • Ctenophora 0 questions Phylum of marine colenterates characterized by eight comb rows of fused cilia on the body surface. In contrast to CNIDARIA they lack stinging cells, but they are voracious predators and possess sticky cells (colloblasts) for capturing prey. Most species are transparent and many exhibit bioluminescence.
          • Echinodermata 0 questions A phylum of the most familiar marine invertebrates. Its class Stelleroidea contains two subclasses, the Asteroidea (the STARFISH or sea stars) and the Ophiuroidea (the brittle stars, also called basket stars and serpent stars). There are 1500 described species of STARFISH found throughout the world. The second class, Echinoidea, contains about 950 species of SEA URCHINS, heart urchins, and sand dollars. A third class, Holothuroidea, comprises about 900 echinoderms known as SEA CUCUMBERS. Echinoderms are used extensively in biological research. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp773-826)
          • Helminthes 0 questions Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.
            • Acanthocephala 0 questions A phylum of parasitic worms, closely related to tapeworms and containing two genera: Moniliformis, which sometimes infects man, and Macracanthorhynchus, which infects swine.
            • Nematoda 0 questions A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.
              • Adenophorea 0 questions A subclass of nematodes characterized by reduced or absent caudal papillae and an excretory system lacking lateral canals. Its organisms are usually infective to their final host.
              • Secernentea 0 questions A subclass of nematodes characterized by numerous caudal papillae and an excretory system possessing lateral canals.
                • Ascaridida 0 questions An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Its organisms possess two or three pairs of dorsolateral caudal papillae.
                • Oxyurida 0 questions An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Its organisms are characterized by a single, ventral excretory gland and a relatively stout, short body.
                • Rhabditida 0 questions An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Its organisms are characterized by an annulated or smooth cuticle and the absence of caudal glands.
                • Spirurida 0 questions An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Characteristics include ventral or caudoventral papillae and an esophagus divided into anterior muscular and posterior glandular parts.
                • Strongylida 0 questions An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Characteristics include an H-shaped excretory system with two subventral glands.
                  • Ancylostomatoidea 0 questions A superfamily of nematode parasitic hookworms consisting of four genera: ANCYLOSTOMA, NECATOR, Bunostomum, and Uncinaria. ANCYLOSTOMA and NECATOR occur in humans and other mammals. Bunostomum is common in ruminants and Uncinaria in wolves, foxes, and dogs.
                  • Heligmosomatoidea 0 questions A superfamily of parasitic nematodes which were formerly considered a part of TRICHOSTRONGYLOIDEA. It includes the following genera: Heligmosomum, NEMATOSPIROIDES, and NIPPOSTRONGYLUS. The hosts are rodents.
                    • Nematospiroides 0 questions A genus of nematodes found mainly in mice. Its organisms are used in biomedical research.
                      • Nematospiroides Dubius 0 questions A species of intestinal nematode parasites which occur most commonly in mice. Infection is by ingesting larvae. This particular species is used extensively in immunological research.
                    • Nippostrongylus 0 questions A genus of intestinal nematode parasites belonging to the superfamily HELIGMOSOMATOIDEA, which commonly occurs in rats but has been experimentally transmitted to other rodents and rabbits. Infection is usually through the skin.
                  • Metastrongyloidea 0 questions A superfamily of nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA. Characteristics include a fluid-filled outer layer of cuticle and a reduced mouth and bursa.
                  • Molineoidae 0 questions
                  • Strongyloidea 0 questions A superfamily of strongyles or roundworms which are parasites in the intestinal tract of equines, pigs, rodents, and primates (including man). It includes the genera Cyasthostomum, Ransomus, Globocephalus, OESOPHAGOSTOMUM, and STRONGYLUS.
                  • Trichostrongyloidea 0 questions A superfamily of nematodes. Most are intestinal parasites of ruminants and accidentally in humans. This superfamily includes seven genera: DICTYOCAULUS; HAEMONCHUS; Cooperia, OSTERTAGIA; Nematodirus, TRICHOSTRONGYLUS; and Hyostrongylus.
                • Tylenchida 0 questions An order of nematodes consisting of many species which are plant parasites. Female worms lay eggs that hatch either in soil or in the host plant.
            • Plathelminthes 0 questions A phylum of acoelomate, bilaterally symmetrical flatworms, without a definite anus. It includes three classes: Cestoda, Turbellaria, and Trematoda.
            • Rotifera 0 questions A class of minute animals of the phylum Aschelminthes.
          • Mollusca 0 questions A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
          • Parasite 0 questions Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
          • Placozoa 0 questions
          • Porifera 0 questions The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.
          • Tardigrada 0 questions
      • Choanoflagellata 0 questions
      • Cryptophyta 0 questions A division (some say phylum or class) of the ALGAE, characterized by biflagellated cells and found in both freshwater and marine environments. Pigmentation varies but only one CHLOROPLAST is present. Unique structures include a nucleomorph and ejectosomes.
      • Diplomonadida 0 questions An order of protozoa characterized by the presence of one or two karyomastigonts and either two-fold rotational or mirror symmetry.
      • Euglenozoa 0 questions
      • Champignons 2 questions A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
      • Haptophyta 0 questions
      • Mésomycétozoaires 0 questions A class of parasitic and saprophytic microorganisms whose origins can be traced near the animal-fungal divergence. Members of the class are typically pathogens of FISHES, but there are exceptions. There are two recognized orders: Icthyophonida and Dermocystida.
      • Oxymonadida 0 questions
      • Parabasalidea 0 questions
      • Plantes 1 question Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of the kingdom Plantae. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alteration of haploid and diploid generations.
      • Retortamonadidae 0 questions
      • Rhizaria 0 questions
      • Stramenopiles 0 questions
    • Archéobactéries 0 questions One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
    • Bactéries 14 questions Bactéries, gram-positif, formant des endospores. Elles comprennent les genres suivants : BACILLUS ; CLOSTRIDIUM ; MICROMONOSPORA ; SACCHAROPOLYSPORA et STREPTOMYCES.
    • Virus 2 questions Petits agents infectieux aux génomes constitués, soit d'ADN, soit d'ARN (jamais des deux), sans métabolisme propre et dans l'incapacité de se multiplier en dehors des cellules vivantes.
    • Organism Forms 0 questions
  • Maladies 167 questions Any impairment of normal physiological function affecting all or part of an organism, esp a specific pathological change caused by infection, stress, etc, producing characteristic symptoms; illness or sickness in general.
  • Produits chimiques et pharmaceutiques 79 questions Any substance used in or resulting from a reaction involving changes to atoms or molecules, especially one derived artificially for practical use and any synthetic, semisynthetic, or natural chemical substance used in the treatment, prevention, or diagnosis of disease, or for other medical reasons.
  • Techniques et équipements analytiques, diagnostiques et thérapeutiques 36 questions
  • Psychiatrie et psychologie 14 questions The branches of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness and the scientific study of all forms of human and animal behaviour, sometimes concerned with the methods through which behaviour can be modified.
  • Phénomènes et processus 17 questions
  • Disciplines et professions 9 questions
  • Anthropologie, enseignement, sociologie et phénoménes sociaux 5 questions
  • Technologie, industrie et agriculture 1 question
  • Sciences humaines 6 questions
  • Sciences De L'Information 1 question Champ de la connaissance, théorie, et technologie, traitant de la collection de faits et de calculs, ainsi que des processus et des méthodes impliqués dans leur manipulation, stockage, diffusion, publication, et recherche. Il inclut la communication, l'édition, la bibliothéconomie, et l'informatique.
  • Individus 5 questions
  • Santé 69 questions
  • Caractéristiques d'une publication 2 questions
  • Lieux géographiques 9 questions The study of the natural features of the earth's surface, including topography, climate, soil, vegetation, etc, and man's response to them.
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