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  • Anatomie 93 questions
  • Organismes 37 questions Any living biological entity, such as an animal, plant, fungus, or bacterium.
    • Eukaryota 3 questions
      • Alveolata 0 questions
      • Amoebozoa 0 questions
      • Animaux 0 questions Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, Animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, Animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain Eukarya.
        • Groupes Animaux 0 questions Animaux groupés selon les populations écologiques, morphologiques ou génétiques.
        • Chordés 0 questions Regroupe des animaux présentant une épine dorsale développée.
          • Chordés Invertébrés 0 questions A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla Cephalochordata, UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage.
          • Vertébrés 0 questions Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
            • Amphibians 0 questions
            • Oiseaux 0 questions Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
            • Poissons 0 questions A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
            • Mammifères 0 questions Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young. It includes three major groups: placentals and marsupials, which are viviparous, and monotremes, which are oviparous. (Dorland, 28th ed.)
              • Artiodactyla 0 questions
              • Carnivora 0 questions An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.
              • Cetacea 0 questions An order of wholly aquatic MAMMALS occurring in all the OCEANS and adjoining seas of the world, as well as in certain river systems. They feed generally on FISHES, cephalopods, and crustaceans. Most are gregarious and most have a relatively long period of parental care and maturation. Included are DOLPHINS; PORPOISES; and WHALES. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp969-70)
              • Chiroptera 0 questions Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.
              • Hyrax 0 questions Any of certain small mammals of the order Hyracoidea.
              • Insectivora 0 questions An order of insect eating MAMMALS including MOLES; SHREWS; HEDGEHOGS and tenrecs.
              • Lagomorpha 0 questions Ordre de petits mammifères comprenant deux familles, Ochotonidae et Leporidae (LAPINS et LIEVRES). La longueur de la tête et du corps varie entre 125 et 750 mm. La queue est courte chez les lièvres et les lapins et absente chez les ochotones. Les lapins naissent sans fourrure et avec les yeux et les oreilles fermés. Les LIEVRES naissent avec fourrure et avec les yeux et les oreilles ouverts. Tous sont végétariens.
              • Marsupialia 0 questions An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.
              • Monotremata 0 questions
              • Perissodactyla 0 questions An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)
              • Primates 0 questions
              • Proboscidea Mammal 0 questions
              • Rodentia 0 questions A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
                • Chinchilla 0 questions A genus of the family Chinchillidae which consists of three species: C. brevicaudata, C. lanigera, and C. villidera. They are used extensively in biomedical research.
                • Dipodomys 0 questions A genus of the family Heteromyidae which contains 22 species. Their physiology is adapted for the conservation of water, and they seldom drink water. They are found in arid or desert habitats and travel by hopping on their hind limbs.
                • Géomys 0 questions The family Geomyidae of burrowing rodents, commonly called pocket gophers. There are six genera, all found in North America.
                • Cochons D'Inde 0 questions A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
                • Rats Taupes 0 questions Any of several burrowing rodents of the families MURIDAE and Bathyergidae, found in eastern Europe, Africa, and Asia. They have short limbs, small eyes with permanently closed lids, and no tail. Three genera SPALAX (Muridae), Heterocephalus (Bathyergidae) and Cryptomys (Bathyergidae) are used frequently as experimental animals in biomedical research. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed)
                • Muridae 0 questions A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.
                  • Arvicolinae 0 questions A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.
                  • Cricetinae 0 questions A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
                  • Gerbillinae 0 questions A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.
                  • Murinae 0 questions A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the Old World MICE and RATS.
                    • Microscopie 0 questions Microscopy in which the image is formed by ultraviolet radiation and is displayed and recorded by means of photographic film.
                      • Souris Congéniques 0 questions Mouse strains constructed to possess identical genotypes except for a difference at a single gene locus.
                      • Lignées Consanguines De Souris 0 questions Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
                        • Mice, 129 Strain 0 questions
                        • Lignées Consanguines De Souris 0 questions Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
                        • Souris De Lignée Akr 0 questions
                        • Souris De Lignée Balb C 0 questions
                        • Souris De Lignée C3H 0 questions
                        • Souris De Lignée C57Bl 0 questions
                        • Souris De Lignée Cba 0 questions
                        • Souris De Lignée Cftr 0 questions A strain of mice widely studied as a model for cystic fibrosis. These mice are generated from embryonic stem cells in which the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene is inactivated by gene targeting. As a result, all mice have one copy of this altered gene in all their tissues. Mice homozygous for the disrupted gene exhibit many features common to young cystic fibrosis patients, including failure to thrive, meconium ileus, and alteration of mucous and serous glands.
                        • Souris De Lignée Hrs 0 questions Homozygous, permanently near-hairless mice which lose their hair at about 10 days of age.
                        • Souris De Lignée Dba 0 questions
                        • Souris De Lignée Icr 0 questions
                        • Souris De Lignée Mrl Lpr 0 questions A mouse substrain that is genetically predisposed to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome, which has been found to be clinically similar to the human disease. It has been determined that this mouse strain carries a mutation in the fas gene. Also, the MRL/lpr is a useful model to study behavioral and cognitive deficits found in autoimmune diseases and the efficacy of immunosuppressive agents.
                        • Souris De Lignée Nod 0 questions A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.
                        • Souris De Lignée Nzb 0 questions
                        • Souris De Lignée Sencar 0 questions Mice selectively bred for hypersusceptibility to two-stage chemical skin carcinogenesis. They are also hypersusceptible to UV radiation tumorigenesis with single high-dose, but not chronic low-dose, exposures. SENCAR (SENsitive to CARcinogenesis) mice are used in research as an animal model for tumor production.
                      • Souches Mutantes De Souris 0 questions Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
                      • Souris Transgéniques 0 questions Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO.
                    • Rats 0 questions The common name for the genus Rattus.
                  • Sigmodontinae 0 questions A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.
                  • Spalax 0 questions A genus of blind, subterranean MOLE RATS, in the subfamily Spalacidae, family MURIDAE, used as a animal model in neurophysiology. There are at least five different species described, all found in the Ukraine.
                • Myoxidae 0 questions A family of nocturnal rodents, similar in appearance to SQUIRRELS, but smaller. There are 28 species, half of which are found in Africa.
                • Octodon 0 questions A genus of diurnal rats in the family Octodonidae, found in South America. The species Octodon degus is frequently used for research.
                • Porcs- 0 questions Common name for large, quilled rodents (RODENTIA) comprised of two families: Old World porcupines (Hystricidae) and New World porcupines (Erethizontidae).
                • Sciuridae 0 questions A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.
              • Scandentia 0 questions An order of the class MAMMALS that consists of one family, TUPAIIDAE (tree shrews), 5 genera (one of which is TUPAIA), and 16 species. Their recent distribution is from India to the Philippines, southern China to Java, Borneo, Sumatra, Bali, and other islands in those regions.
              • Sirenia 0 questions An order of heavy-bodied, slow-moving, completely aquatic, herbivorous mammals. The body is fusiform, plump, and hairless, except for bristles on the snout. Hindlimbs are absent, the forelimbs are modified to flippers, and the tail is a horizontal fluke. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)
              • Xenarthra 0 questions An order of New World mammals characterized by the absence of incisors and canines from among their teeth, and comprising the ARMADILLOS, the SLOTHS, and the anteaters. The order is distinguished from all others by what are known as xenarthrous vertebrae (xenos, strange; arthron, joint): there are secondary, and sometimes even more, articulations between the vertebrae of the lumbar series. The order was formerly called Edentata. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, vol. I, p515)
            • Reptiles 0 questions
        • Invertébrés 0 questions Animals that have no spinal column.
      • Choanoflagellata 0 questions
      • Cryptophyta 0 questions A division (some say phylum or class) of the ALGAE, characterized by biflagellated cells and found in both freshwater and marine environments. Pigmentation varies but only one CHLOROPLAST is present. Unique structures include a nucleomorph and ejectosomes.
      • Diplomonadida 0 questions An order of protozoa characterized by the presence of one or two karyomastigonts and either two-fold rotational or mirror symmetry.
      • Euglenozoa 0 questions
      • Champignons 2 questions A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
      • Haptophyta 0 questions
      • Mésomycétozoaires 0 questions A class of parasitic and saprophytic microorganisms whose origins can be traced near the animal-fungal divergence. Members of the class are typically pathogens of FISHES, but there are exceptions. There are two recognized orders: Icthyophonida and Dermocystida.
      • Oxymonadida 0 questions
      • Parabasalidea 0 questions
      • Plantes 1 question Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of the kingdom Plantae. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alteration of haploid and diploid generations.
      • Retortamonadidae 0 questions
      • Rhizaria 0 questions
      • Stramenopiles 0 questions
    • Archéobactéries 0 questions One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
    • Bactéries 14 questions Bactéries, gram-positif, formant des endospores. Elles comprennent les genres suivants : BACILLUS ; CLOSTRIDIUM ; MICROMONOSPORA ; SACCHAROPOLYSPORA et STREPTOMYCES.
    • Virus 2 questions Petits agents infectieux aux génomes constitués, soit d'ADN, soit d'ARN (jamais des deux), sans métabolisme propre et dans l'incapacité de se multiplier en dehors des cellules vivantes.
    • Organism Forms 0 questions
  • Maladies 166 questions Any impairment of normal physiological function affecting all or part of an organism, esp a specific pathological change caused by infection, stress, etc, producing characteristic symptoms; illness or sickness in general.
  • Produits chimiques et pharmaceutiques 79 questions Any substance used in or resulting from a reaction involving changes to atoms or molecules, especially one derived artificially for practical use and any synthetic, semisynthetic, or natural chemical substance used in the treatment, prevention, or diagnosis of disease, or for other medical reasons.
  • Techniques et équipements analytiques, diagnostiques et thérapeutiques 36 questions
  • Psychiatrie et psychologie 14 questions The branches of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness and the scientific study of all forms of human and animal behaviour, sometimes concerned with the methods through which behaviour can be modified.
  • Phénomènes et processus 17 questions
  • Disciplines et professions 9 questions
  • Anthropologie, enseignement, sociologie et phénoménes sociaux 5 questions
  • Technologie, industrie et agriculture 1 question
  • Sciences humaines 6 questions
  • Sciences De L'Information 1 question Champ de la connaissance, théorie, et technologie, traitant de la collection de faits et de calculs, ainsi que des processus et des méthodes impliqués dans leur manipulation, stockage, diffusion, publication, et recherche. Il inclut la communication, l'édition, la bibliothéconomie, et l'informatique.
  • Individus 5 questions
  • Santé 68 questions
  • Caractéristiques d'une publication 2 questions
  • Lieux géographiques 9 questions The study of the natural features of the earth's surface, including topography, climate, soil, vegetation, etc, and man's response to them.
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