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  • Anatomie 93 questions
  • Organismes 37 questions Any living biological entity, such as an animal, plant, fungus, or bacterium.
  • Maladies 166 questions Any impairment of normal physiological function affecting all or part of an organism, esp a specific pathological change caused by infection, stress, etc, producing characteristic symptoms; illness or sickness in general.
    • Infections Bactériennes Et Mycoses 20 questions Infections caused by bacteria and fungi, general, specified, or unspecified.
    • Maladies Virales 5 questions Terme général pour désigner les maladies dues à des virus.
    • Maladies Parasitaires 4 questions Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
    • Tumeurs 12 questions Neoplasms composed of squamous cells of the epithelium. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in tissue composed of squamous elements.
    • Maladies De L'Appareil Locomoteur 3 questions Maladies des muscles et de leurs ligaments et tissus conjonctifs associés ainsi que des os et des cartilages, considérés dans leur ensemble.
    • Maladie De L'Appareil Digestif 9 questions Diseases in any part of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the accessory organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
    • Maladies Du Système Stomatognathique 2 questions Maladies générales ou non-spécifiques du système stomatognathique, comprenant la bouche, les dents, les mâchoires et le pharynx.
    • Maladies De L'Appareil Respiratoire 8 questions
    • Maladies Oto-Rhino-Laryngologiques 0 questions General or unspecified diseases of the ear, nose, and throat.
    • Maladies Du Système Nerveux 10 questions Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
      • Maladies Auto-Immunes Du Système Nerveux 0 questions Disorders caused by cellular or humoral immune responses primarily directed towards nervous system autoantigens. The immune response may be directed towards specific tissue components (e.g., myelin) and may be limited to the central nervous system (e.g., MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS) or the peripheral nervous system (e.g., GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME).
      • Maladies Du Système Nerveux Autonome 1 question Diseases of the parasympathetic or sympathetic divisions of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; which has components located in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Autonomic dysfunction may be associated with HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES; BRAIN STEM disorders; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. Manifestations include impairments of vegetative functions including the maintenance of BLOOD PRESSURE; HEART RATE; pupil function; SWEATING; REPRODUCTIVE AND URINARY PHYSIOLOGY; and DIGESTION.
      • Maladie Du Système Nerveux Central 2 questions Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.
      • Troubles Chronobiologiques 0 questions Disruptions of the rhythmic cycle of bodily functions or activities.
      • Atteintes Des Nerfs Crâniens 0 questions Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.
      • Maladies Démyélinisantes 0 questions Maladies caractérisées par la perte ou le dysfonctionnement de la myéline dans le système nerveux central ou périphérique.
      • Malformations Du Système Nerveux 0 questions Structural abnormalities of the central or peripheral nervous system resulting primarily from defects of embryogenesis.
        • Agenesis of Corpus Callosum 0 questions
        • Kystes Du Système Nerveux Central 0 questions Congenital or acquired cysts of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges which may remain stable in size or undergo progressive enlargement.
        • Malformations Vasculaires Du Système Nerveux Central 0 questions Congenital or acquired malformations involving arteries, veins, or venous sinuses of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
        • Malformation De Dandy-Walker 0 questions A congenital abnormality of the central nervous system marked by failure of the midline structures of the cerebellum to develop, dilation of the fourth ventricle, and upward displacement of the transverse sinuses, tentorium, and torcula. Clinical features include occipital bossing, progressive head enlargement, bulging of anterior fontanelle, papilledema, ataxia, gait disturbances, nystagmus, and intellectual compromise. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp294-5)
        • Hereditary Sensory and Motor Neuropathy 0 questions
        • Neuropathies Héréditaires Sensitives Et Autonomes 0 questions A group of inherited disorders characterized by degeneration of dorsal root and autonomic ganglion cells, and clinically by loss of sensation and autonomic dysfunction. There are five subtypes. Type I features autosomal dominant inheritance and distal sensory involvement. Type II is characterized by autosomal inheritance and distal and proximal sensory loss. Type III is DYSAUTONOMIA, FAMILIAL. Type IV features insensitivity to pain, heat intolerance, and mental deficiency. Type V is characterized by a selective loss of pain with intact light touch and vibratory sensation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, pp142-4)
        • Hydranencéphalie 0 questions A congenital condition where the greater portions of the cerebral hemispheres and CORPUS STRIATUM are replaced by CSF and glial tissue. The meninges and the skull are well formed, which is consistent with earlier normal embryogenesis of the telencephalon. Bilateral occlusions of the internal carotid arteries in utero is a potential mechanism. Clinical features include intact brainstem reflexes without evidence of higher cortical activity. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p307)
        • Malformations of Cortical Development 0 questions
        • Anomalies Du Tube Neural 0 questions Malformations congénitales du système nerveux central et des structures adjacentes, liées à un défaut de fermeture du tube neural pendant le premier trimestre de grossesse, en général survenant entre les jours 18-29 de gestation. Des malformations ectodermiques et mésodermiques (concernant surtout le crâne et les vertèbres) peuvent aussi apparaître suite à des défauts de fermeture du tube neural.
          • Anencéphalie 0 questions Malformation du système nerveux provoquée par une fermeture insuffisante du neuropore antérieur. Les nouveaux nés ont la moelle épinière, le cervelet et le tronc cérébral intactes mais ils manquent des structures neurales en dessus de ce niveau. Le crâne n
          • Malformation D'Arnold-Chiari 0 questions A group of congenital malformations involving the brainstem, cerebellum, upper spinal cord, and surrounding bony structures. Type II is the most common, and features compression of the medulla and cerebellar tonsils into the upper cervical spinal canal and an associated MENINGOMYELOCELE. Type I features similar, but less severe malformations and is without an associated meningomyelocele. Type III has the features of type II with an additional herniation of the entire cerebellum through the bony defect involving the foramen magnum, forming an ENCEPHALOCELE. Type IV is a form a cerebellar hypoplasia. Clinical manifestations of types I-III include TORTICOLLIS; opisthotonus; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; VOCAL CORD PARALYSIS; APNEA; NYSTAGMUS, CONGENITAL; swallowing difficulties; and ATAXIA. (From Menkes
          • Encéphalocèle 0 questions Cerebral tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.
          • Méningocèle 0 questions A congenital or acquired protrusion of the meninges, unaccompanied by neural tissue, through a bony defect in the skull or vertebral column.
          • Myéloméningocèle 0 questions Congenital, or rarely acquired, herniation of meningeal and spinal cord tissue through a bony defect in the vertebral column. The majority of these defects occur in the lumbosacral region. Clinical features include PARAPLEGIA, loss of sensation in the lower body, and incontinence. This condition may be associated with the ARNOLD-CHIARI MALFORMATION and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp35-6)
          • Pentalogy of Cantrell 0 questions
          • Dysraphisme Spinal 0 questions Congenital defects of closure of one or more vertebral arches, which may be associated with malformations of the spinal cord, nerve roots, congenital fibrous bands, lipomas, and congenital cysts. These malformations range from mild (e.g., SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA) to severe, including rachischisis where there is complete failure of neural tube and spinal cord fusion, resulting in exposure of the spinal cord at the surface. Spinal dysraphism includes all forms of spina bifida. The open form is called SPINA BIFIDA CYSTICA and the closed form is SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p34)
            • Spina Bifida Cystica 0 questions A form of spinal dysraphism associated with a protruding cyst made up of either meninges (i.e., a MENINGOCELE) or meninges in combination with spinal cord tissue (i.e., a MENINGOMYELOCELE). These lesions are frequently associated with spinal cord dysfunction, HYDROCEPHALUS, and SYRINGOMYELIA. (From Davis et al., Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp224-5)
            • Spina Bifida Occulta 0 questions A common congenital midline defect of fusion of the vertebral arch without protrusion of the spinal cord or meninges. The lesion is also covered by skin. L5 and S1 are the most common vertebrae involved. The condition may be associated with an overlying area of hyperpigmented skin, a dermal sinus, or an abnormal patch of hair. The majority of individuals with this malformation are asymptomatic although there is an increased incidence of tethered cord syndrome and lumbar SPONDYLOSIS. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p34)
        • Dysplasie Septo-Optique 0 questions A condition resulting from congenital malformations involving the brain. The syndrome of septo-optic dysplasia combines hypoplasia or agenesis of the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM and the OPTIC NERVE. The extent of the abnormalities can vary. Septo-optic dysplasia is often associated with abnormalities of the hypothalamic and other diencephalic structures, and HYPOPITUITARISM.
      • Tumeurs Du Système Nerveux 0 questions Benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges. Included in this category are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.
      • Syndromes Neurocutanés 0 questions A group of disorders characterized by ectodermal-based malformations and neoplastic growths in the skin, nervous system, and other organs.
      • Maladies Neurodégénératives 1 question Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.
      • Manifestations Neurologiques 2 questions Clinical signs and symptoms caused by nervous system injury or dysfunction.
      • Maladies Neuromusculaires 1 question Terme général comprenant : MALADIE DU NEURONE MOTEUR PERIPHERIQUE ; MALADIES DU SYSTEME NERVEUX PERIPHERIQUE ; et certaines MALADIES MUSCULAIRES. Les manifestations comprennent : AFAIBLISSEMENT MUSCULAIRE ; FASCICULATION ; ATROPHIE musculaire ; SPASME ; MyOKYMIE ; HYPERTONIE MUSCULAIRE, myalgies et HYPOTONIE MUSCULAIRE.
      • Syndromes Neurotoxiques 0 questions Troubles neurologiques provoqués par exposition à des substances toxiques, par ingestion, injection, application cutanée ou toute autre méthode. Sont inclues des conditions provoquées par les substances biologiques, chimiques et pharmaceutiques.
      • Troubles Du Sommeil 1 question Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
      • Traumatismes Du Système Nerveux 1 question Traumatic injuries to the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, autonomic nervous system, or neuromuscular system, including iatrogenic injuries induced by surgical procedures.
    • Maladies De L'Oeil 3 questions
    • Maladies Urogénitales De L'Homme 6 questions Maladies de l
    • Maladies De L'Appareil Urogénital Féminin Et Complications De La Grossesse 6 questions Pathological processes of the female URINARY TRACT, the reproductive system (GENITALIA, FEMALE), and disorders related to PREGNANCY.
    • Maladies Cardiovasculaires 7 questions Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
    • Hémopathies Et Maladies Lymphatiques 2 questions Ensemble des maladies hématologiques et des maladies du système lymphatique. Les hémopathies comprennent des troubles impliquant les éléments figurés (Agrégation hématie par exemple) et les composants chimiques (par exemple, anomalie protéine sang); les maladies lymphatiques comprennent les troubles concernant la lymphe, les ganglions lymphatiques et les lymphocytes.
    • Malformations Et Maladies Congénitales, Héréditaires Et Néonatales 1 question Maladies existantes à la naissance et souvent auparavant ou qui se développent durant le premier mois de vie (Nouveau-né, maladies), toutes causalités confondues. Parmi ces maladies, celles caractérisées par des difformités structurelles sont désignées par le terme malformations.
    • Maladies De La Peau Et Du Tissu Conjonctif 7 questions A collective term for diseases of the skin and its appendages and of connective tissue.
    • Maladies Métaboliques Et Nutritionnelles 2 questions A collective term for nutritional disorders resulting from poor absorption or nutritional imbalance, and metabolic disorders resulting from defects in biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) or breakdown (CATABOLISM) of endogenous substances.
    • Maladies Endocriniennes 1 question Pathological processes of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, and diseases resulting from abnormal level of available HORMONES.
    • Maladies Du Système Immunitaire 0 questions Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.
    • Troubles Liés 0 questions Disorders related to substance abuse, the side effects of a medication, toxin exposure, and ALCOHOL-RELATED DISORDERS.
    • Maladies Animales 1 question
    • Signes Et Symptômes, 6 questions Les états anormaux, anatomiques ou physiologiques et les manisfestations objectives ou subjectives d'une maladie, qui ne sont pas classifiés comme maladie ou syndrome.
    • Maladies Professionnelles 0 questions Maladies dues à des facteurs liés à l'emploi d'une personne. (Tiré de Dorland, 28th ed)
    • Troubles Liés2 0 questions Disorders related to substance abuse, the side effects of a medication, toxin exposure, and ALCOHOL-RELATED DISORDERS.
    • Plaies Et Lésions Traumatiques 1 question Dommages infligés au corps résultatant, directement ou indirectement, d'une force extérieure, avec ou sans rupture de la continuité structurelle.
  • Produits chimiques et pharmaceutiques 79 questions Any substance used in or resulting from a reaction involving changes to atoms or molecules, especially one derived artificially for practical use and any synthetic, semisynthetic, or natural chemical substance used in the treatment, prevention, or diagnosis of disease, or for other medical reasons.
  • Techniques et équipements analytiques, diagnostiques et thérapeutiques 36 questions
  • Psychiatrie et psychologie 14 questions The branches of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness and the scientific study of all forms of human and animal behaviour, sometimes concerned with the methods through which behaviour can be modified.
  • Phénomènes et processus 17 questions
  • Disciplines et professions 9 questions
  • Anthropologie, enseignement, sociologie et phénoménes sociaux 5 questions
  • Technologie, industrie et agriculture 1 question
  • Sciences humaines 6 questions
  • Sciences De L'Information 1 question Champ de la connaissance, théorie, et technologie, traitant de la collection de faits et de calculs, ainsi que des processus et des méthodes impliqués dans leur manipulation, stockage, diffusion, publication, et recherche. Il inclut la communication, l'édition, la bibliothéconomie, et l'informatique.
  • Individus 5 questions
  • Santé 68 questions
  • Caractéristiques d'une publication 2 questions
  • Lieux géographiques 9 questions The study of the natural features of the earth's surface, including topography, climate, soil, vegetation, etc, and man's response to them.
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