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  • Anatomie 93 questions
  • Organismes 37 questions Any living biological entity, such as an animal, plant, fungus, or bacterium.
  • Maladies 167 questions Any impairment of normal physiological function affecting all or part of an organism, esp a specific pathological change caused by infection, stress, etc, producing characteristic symptoms; illness or sickness in general.
    • Infections Bactériennes Et Mycoses 20 questions Infections caused by bacteria and fungi, general, specified, or unspecified.
    • Maladies Virales 5 questions Terme général pour désigner les maladies dues à des virus.
    • Maladies Parasitaires 4 questions Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
    • Tumeurs 12 questions Neoplasms composed of squamous cells of the epithelium. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in tissue composed of squamous elements.
    • Maladies De L'Appareil Locomoteur 3 questions Maladies des muscles et de leurs ligaments et tissus conjonctifs associés ainsi que des os et des cartilages, considérés dans leur ensemble.
    • Maladie De L'Appareil Digestif 9 questions Diseases in any part of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the accessory organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
    • Maladies Du Système Stomatognathique 2 questions Maladies générales ou non-spécifiques du système stomatognathique, comprenant la bouche, les dents, les mâchoires et le pharynx.
    • Maladies De L'Appareil Respiratoire 8 questions
    • Maladies Oto-Rhino-Laryngologiques 0 questions General or unspecified diseases of the ear, nose, and throat.
    • Maladies Du Système Nerveux 10 questions Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
      • Maladies Auto-Immunes Du Système Nerveux 0 questions Disorders caused by cellular or humoral immune responses primarily directed towards nervous system autoantigens. The immune response may be directed towards specific tissue components (e.g., myelin) and may be limited to the central nervous system (e.g., MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS) or the peripheral nervous system (e.g., GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME).
      • Maladies Du Système Nerveux Autonome 1 question Diseases of the parasympathetic or sympathetic divisions of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; which has components located in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Autonomic dysfunction may be associated with HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES; BRAIN STEM disorders; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. Manifestations include impairments of vegetative functions including the maintenance of BLOOD PRESSURE; HEART RATE; pupil function; SWEATING; REPRODUCTIVE AND URINARY PHYSIOLOGY; and DIGESTION.
      • Maladie Du Système Nerveux Central 2 questions Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.
      • Troubles Chronobiologiques 0 questions Disruptions of the rhythmic cycle of bodily functions or activities.
      • Atteintes Des Nerfs Crâniens 0 questions Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.
      • Maladies Démyélinisantes 0 questions Maladies caractérisées par la perte ou le dysfonctionnement de la myéline dans le système nerveux central ou périphérique.
      • Malformations Du Système Nerveux 0 questions Structural abnormalities of the central or peripheral nervous system resulting primarily from defects of embryogenesis.
      • Tumeurs Du Système Nerveux 0 questions Benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges. Included in this category are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.
      • Syndromes Neurocutanés 0 questions A group of disorders characterized by ectodermal-based malformations and neoplastic growths in the skin, nervous system, and other organs.
      • Maladies Neurodégénératives 1 question Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.
        • Maladies Neurodégénératives Héréditaires 0 questions Inherited disorders characterized by progressive atrophy and dysfunction of anatomically or physiologically related neurologic systems.
          • Maladie D'Alexander 0 questions A rare inherited disorder of myelin formation. Alexander disease is a progressive leukoencephalopathy whose hallmark is the widespread accumulation of cytoplasmic inclusions called Rosenthal fibers. The fibers contain GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN in association with ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN. Rosenthal fibers are found predominantly in ASTROCYTES located in the subependymal, subpial, and periventricular areas of the BRAIN.
          • Neuropathies Amyloïdes Familiales 0 questions Inherited disorders of the peripheral nervous system associated with the deposition of AMYLOID in nerve tissue. The different clinical types based on symptoms correspond to the presence of a variety of mutations in several different proteins including transthyretin (PREALBUMIN); APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I; and GELSOLIN.
          • Bulbo-Spinal Atrophy, X-Linked 0 questions
          • Maladie De Canavan 0 questions A rare neurodegenerative condition of infancy or childhood characterized by white matter vacuolization and demeylination that gives rise to a spongy appearance. Aspartoacylase deficiency leads to an accumulation of N-acetylaspartate in astrocytes. Inheritance may be autosomal recessive or the illness may occur sporadically. This illness occurs more frequently in individuals of Ashkenazic Jewish descent. The neonatal form features the onset of hypotonia and lethargy at birth, rapidly progressing to coma and death. The infantile form features developmental delay, DYSKINESIAS, hypotonia, spasticity, blindness, and megalencephaly. The juvenile form is characterized by ATAXIA; OPTIC ATROPHY; and DEMENTIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p944; Am J Med Genet 1988 Feb;29(2):4
          • Syndrome De Cockayne 0 questions Syndrome héréditaire phénotypiquement caractérisé par un facies peu commun (grandes oreilles et yeux enfoncés dans les orbites), un échec de croissance, une détérioration intellectuelle, une perte de graisse sous-cutanée, une dégénération rétinienne pigmentaire, une surdité neurale, un nanisme, une photosensibilité, une atrophie du nerf optique, une neuropathie périphérique, et une cataracte. L'examen pathologique indique une perte inégale de myéline centrale et une atrophie de la substance blanche. Le syndrome de Cockayne peut être divisé en 2 ou plusieurs sous-types génétiques distincts. (d'après Menkes, Manuel de Neurologie chez l'enfant, 5ème ED, p197)
          • Dystonie Musculaire Déformante 0 questions Maladie caractérisée par une dystonie focale qui progresse en contractions spasmodiques involontaires des muscles des jambes, du tronc, des bras, et du visage. Les mains sont souvent épargnées, cependant, des contractions soutenues axiales et des membres peuvent mener à un état où le corps est contorsionné excessivement. Le début a lieu habituellement dans la première ou deuxième décennie. Les modèles familiaux de la transmission, principalement dominante autosomale avec une pénétration incomplète, ont été identifiés. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1078)
          • Syndrome De Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker 0 questions Maladie familiale dominante autosomale à prion avec une gamme étendue de signes cliniques comprenant une ATAXIE, une paraparésie spastique, des signes extrapyramidaux, et une D
          • Dégénérescence Hépatolenticulaire 0 questions Maladie récessive autosomale rare caractérisée par un dépôt du cuivre dans le cerveau, le foie, la cornée, et d'autres organes. Les aspects cliniques incluent une cirrhose du foie, une crise de foie, une splénomégalie, des tremblements, une bradykinésie, une dysarthrie,une chorée, une rigidité musculaire, des anneaux de Kayser-Fleischer (lésions cornéennes pigmentées), une ataxie et une détérioration intellectuelle. Le dysfonctionnement hépatique peut précéder le dysfonctionnement neurologique de plusieurs années. (d'après Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed pp969-71)
          • Maladies Démyélinisantes Héréditaires Du Système Nerveux Central 0 questions Inherited conditions characterized by a loss of myelin in the central nervous system.
          • Hereditary Sensory and Motor Neuropathy 0 questions
          • Neuropathies Héréditaires Sensitives Et Autonomes 0 questions A group of inherited disorders characterized by degeneration of dorsal root and autonomic ganglion cells, and clinically by loss of sensation and autonomic dysfunction. There are five subtypes. Type I features autosomal dominant inheritance and distal sensory involvement. Type II is characterized by autosomal inheritance and distal and proximal sensory loss. Type III is DYSAUTONOMIA, FAMILIAL. Type IV features insensitivity to pain, heat intolerance, and mental deficiency. Type V is characterized by a selective loss of pain with intact light touch and vibratory sensation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, pp142-4)
          • Maladie De Huntington 0 questions Maladie familiale héritée comme trait autosomique dominant, caractérisée par l'apparition d'une CHOREE progressive et de la DEMENCE dans la 4e ou 5e décade de vie. Les manifestations initiales les plus fréquentes sont la paranoïa ; un faible contrôle des impulsions ; la DEPRESSION ; les HALLUCINATIONS ; et le DELIRE. Et finalement : détérioration de l'intellect ; perte du contrôle moteur fin ; ATHETOSE ; et la CHOREE diffuse qui implique la musculature axiale et des membres, menant à un état végétatif 10-15 ans après l'apparition de la maladie. Le type juvenile a une évolution fulminante avec des CRISES ; ATAXIE ; démence ; et chorée.
          • Maladie De Lafora 0 questions A form of stimulus sensitive myoclonic epilepsy inherited as an autosomal recessive condition. The most common presenting feature is a single seizure in the second decade of life. This is followed by progressive myoclonus, myoclonic seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, focal occipital seizures, intellectual decline, and severe motor and coordination impairments. Most affected individuals do not live past the age of 25 years. Concentric amyloid (Lafora) bodies are found in neurons, liver, skin, bone, and muscle (From Menkes, Textbook of Childhood Neurology, 5th ed, pp111-110)
          • Syndrome De Lesch-Nyhan 0 questions An inherited disorder transmitted as a sex-linked trait and caused by a deficiency of an enzyme of purine metabolism; HYPOXANTHINE PHOSPHORIBOSYLTRANSFERASE. Affected individuals are normal in the first year of life and then develop psychomotor retardation, extrapyramidal movement disorders, progressive spasticity, and seizures. Self-destructive behaviors such as biting of fingers and lips are seen frequently. Intellectual impairment may also occur but is typically not severe. Elevation of uric acid in the serum leads to the development of renal calculi and gouty arthritis. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp127)
          • Maladie De Menkes 0 questions An inherited disorder of copper metabolism transmitted as an X-linked trait and characterized by the infantile onset of HYPOTHERMIA, feeding difficulties, hypotonia, SEIZURES, bony deformities, pili torti (twisted hair), and severely impaired intellectual development. Defective copper transport across plasma and endoplasmic reticulum membranes results in copper being unavailable for the synthesis of several copper containing enzymes, including PROTEIN-LYSINE 6-OXIDASE; CERULOPLASMIN; and SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE. Pathologic changes include defects in arterial elastin, neuronal loss, and gliosis. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p125)
          • Myotonie Congénitale 0 questions A dominantly inherited muscle disease that begins in early childhood and is characterized by severe myotonia (delayed relaxation of a muscle) after forceful voluntary contractions. Muscular hypertrophy is common and myotonia may impair ambulation and other movements. Myotonia typically becomes less severe with repetitive voluntary contractions of the affected muscles. Generalized myotonia (of Becker) is an autosomal recessive variant of myotonia congenita that may feature more severe myotonia and muscle wasting. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1476-7; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch53, p18)
          • Dystrophie Myotonique 0 questions Maladie neuromusculaire dominante autosomale qui apparait habituellement au début de l'âge adulte caractérisée par une atrophie musculaire progressive (le plus fréquemment impliquant les mains, les avant-bras, et le visage), une myotonie, une calvitie frontale, une opacitié du cristallin, et une atrophie testiculaire. Des anomalies cardiaques de conduction, une faiblesse diaphragmatique, et un retard mental léger peuvent également se produirent. La dystrophie myotonique congénitale est une forme grave de cette maladie, caractérisée par une hypotonie musculaire néonatale, des difficultés d'alimentation, une faiblesse des muscles respiratoires, et une plus grande incidence de retard mental. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1423-5; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch16,
          • Neurofibromatoses 0 questions A group of disorders characterized by an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance with high rates of spontaneous mutation and multiple neurofibromas or neurilemmomas. NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 (generalized neurofibromatosis) accounts for approximately 95% of cases, although multiple additional subtypes (e.g., NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2, neurofibromatosis 3, etc.) have been described. (From Neurochirurgie 1998 Nov;44(4):267-72)
          • Céroïdes-Lipofuscinoses Neuronales 0 questions Une maladie dégénérative génétique caractérisée par des inclusions cytoplasmiques neuronales qui colorent franchement le ceroïde et la lipofuscine. Les individus affectés développent une dégénérescence rétinienne, des crises d'épilepsie, une myoclonie, une ataxie, une rigidité, et une démence progressive. Médicalement il y a quatre sous-types, répartis selon l'âge du début des symptômes: infantile (type de Jansky-Bielschowsky), infantile tardif (type de Santavuori-Haltia), juvénile (type de Spielmeyer-Vogt), et adulte (maladie de Kuf). Les formes infantiles tardives et juvéniles peuvent toutes les deux également être désignées sous le nom de la maladie de Batten ou de maladie de Batten-Mayou.
          • Atrophie Optique Autosomique Dominante 0 questions L'atrophie optique dominante est une neuropathie optique héréditaire causant une diminution de l'acuité visuelle, des déficits de la vision des couleurs, un scotome centrocoecal, et une pâleur du nerf optique (Hum. Genet. 1998; 102: 79-86). Des mutations ont été localisées pour le gène OPA1 sur le chromosome 3q28-q29. OPA1 code pour une dynamine GTPase localisée dans les mitochondries.
          • Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration 0 questions
          • Syndrome De Rett 0 questions An inherited neurological developmental disorder that is associated with X-LINKED INHERITANCE and may be lethal in utero to hemizygous males. The affected female is normal until the age of 6-25 months when progressive loss of voluntary control of hand movements and communication skills; ATAXIA; SEIZURES; autistic behavior; intermittent HYPERVENTILATION; and HYPERAMMONEMIA appear. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p199)
          • Amyotrophies Spinales Infantiles 0 questions A group of recessively inherited diseases that feature progressive muscular atrophy and hypotonia. They are classified as type I (Werdnig-Hoffman disease), type II (intermediate form), and type III (Kugelberg-Welander disease). Type I is fatal in infancy, type II has a late infantile onset and is associated with survival into the second or third decade. Type III has its onset in childhood, and is slowly progressive. (J Med Genet 1996 Apr:33(4):281-3)
          • Dégénérescences Spinocérébelleuses 0 questions A heterogenous group of degenerative syndromes marked by progressive cerebellar dysfunction either in isolation or combined with other neurologic manifestations. Sporadic and inherited subtypes occur. Inheritance patterns include autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked.
            • Ataxie De Friedreich 0 questions An autosomal recessive disease, usually of childhood onset, characterized pathologically by degeneration of the spinocerebellar tracts, posterior columns, and to a lesser extent the corticospinal tracts. Clinical manifestations include GAIT ATAXIA, pes cavus, speech impairment, lateral curvature of spine, rhythmic head tremor, kyphoscoliosis, congestive heart failure (secondary to a cardiomyopathy), and lower extremity weakness. Most forms of this condition are associated with a mutation in a gene on chromosome 9, at band q13, which codes for the mitochondrial protein frataxin. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1081; N Engl J Med 1996 Oct 17;335(16):1169-75) The severity of Friedreich ataxia associated with expansion of GAA repeats in the first intron of the frataxin g
            • Dyssynergie Cérébelleuse Myoclonique 0 questions A condition marked by progressive CEREBELLAR ATAXIA combined with MYOCLONUS usually presenting in the third decade of life or later. Additional clinical features may include generalized and focal SEIZURES, spasticity, and DYSKINESIAS. Autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant patterns of inheritance have been reported. Pathologically, the dentate nucleus and brachium conjunctivum of the CEREBELLUM are atrophic, with variable involvement of the spinal cord, cerebellar cortex, and basal ganglia. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1991, Ch37, pp60-1)
            • Atrophies Olivo-Ponto-Cérébelleuses 0 questions Groupe de maladies héréditaires et sporadiques qui ont en commun une ataxie progressive en combination avec une atrophie du pont de Varole (Cervelet, Protubérance annulaire); et des noyaux olivaires inférieurs. D'autres manifestations cliniques peuvent être présentes incluant une Raideur Musculaire, un nystagmus; une Dégénérescence Rétinienne, une Spasticité Musculaire, une Démence, une Incontinence Urinaire et une ophtalmoplégie. La forme familiale a un début plus tôt (deuxième décennie) et peut présenter une atrophie du cordon médullaire. La forme sporadique tend à apparaître dans la cinquième ou sixième décennie, et est considérée comme un sous-type clinique de l'Atrophie Multisystémique. (d'après Adams et coll., Principes de la Neurologie, 6ème ED, p1085)
            • Ataxies Spinocérébelleuses 0 questions A group of dominantly inherited, predominately late-onset, cerebellar ataxias which have been divided into multiple subtypes based on clinical features and genetic mapping. Progressive ataxia is a central feature of these conditions, and in certain subtypes POLYNEUROPATHY; DYSARTHRIA; visual loss; and other disorders may develop. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch65, pp 12-17; J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1998 Jun;57(6):531-43)
          • Syndrome De Gilles De La Tourette 0 questions A neuropsychological disorder related to alterations in DOPAMINE metabolism and neurotransmission involving frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits. Both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics need to be present with TICS occurring many times a day, nearly daily, over a period of more than one year. The onset is before age 18 and the disturbance is not due to direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition. The disturbance causes marked distress or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. (From DSM-IV, 1994; Neurol Clin 1997 May;15(2):357-79)
          • Sclérose Tubéreuse De Bourneville 0 questions An autosomal dominant disorder which is generally classified as a phacomatosis. Pathologically, the condition is characterized by glial cell tumors which arise in the cerebral hemispheres and retina. There is an increased incidence of benign rhabdomyomas of the heart and angiomyolipomas of kidney, liver, lungs, thyroid, and testes. Clinical manifestations include MENTAL RETARDATION; adenoma sebaceum of the face (actually angiofibromas); EPILEPSY; SPASMS, INFANTILE; Shagreen patches on the trunk; and subungual fibromas. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1011)
          • Syndrome D'Unverricht-Lundborg 0 questions An autosomal recessive condition characterized by recurrent myoclonic and generalized seizures, ATAXIA, slowly progressive intellectual deterioration, dysarthria, and intention tremor. Myoclonic seizures are severe and continuous, and tend to be triggered by movement, stress, and sensory stimuli. The age of onset is between 8 and 13 years, and the condition is relatively frequent in the Baltic region, especially Finland. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp109-110)
        • Maladie 0 questions A neurodegenerative disease characterized by dementia, mild parkinsonism, and fluctuations in attention and alertness. The neuropsychiatric manifestations tend to precede the onset of bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY, and other extrapyramidal signs. DELUSIONS and visual HALLUCINATIONS are relatively frequent in this condition. Histologic examination reveals LEWY BODIES in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and BRAIN STEM. SENILE PLAQUES and other pathologic features characteristic of ALZHEIMER DISEASE may also be present. (From Neurology 1997;48:376-380; Neurology 1996;47:1113-1124)
        • Maladies Du Motoneurone 0 questions Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)
        • Atrophie Multisystématisée 0 questions A syndrome complex composed of three conditions which represent clinical variants of the same disease process: STRIATONIGRAL DEGENERATION; SHY-DRAGER SYNDROME; and the sporadic form of OLIVOPONTOCEREBELLAR ATROPHIES. Clinical features include autonomic, cerebellar, and basal ganglia dysfunction. Pathologic examination reveals atrophy of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, pons, and medulla, with prominent loss of autonomic neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1076; Baillieres Clin Neurol 1997 Apr;6(1):187-204; Med Clin North Am 1999 Mar;83(2):381-92)
        • Atrophies Olivo-Ponto-Cérébelleuses 0 questions Groupe de maladies héréditaires et sporadiques qui ont en commun une ataxie progressive en combination avec une atrophie du pont de Varole (Cervelet, Protubérance annulaire); et des noyaux olivaires inférieurs. D'autres manifestations cliniques peuvent être présentes incluant une Raideur Musculaire, un nystagmus; une Dégénérescence Rétinienne, une Spasticité Musculaire, une Démence, une Incontinence Urinaire et une ophtalmoplégie. La forme familiale a un début plus tôt (deuxième décennie) et peut présenter une atrophie du cordon médullaire. La forme sporadique tend à apparaître dans la cinquième ou sixième décennie, et est considérée comme un sous-type clinique de l'Atrophie Multisystémique. (d'après Adams et coll., Principes de la Neurologie, 6ème ED, p1085)
        • Syndromes Neurologiques Paranéoplasiques 0 questions Degenerative or inflammatory conditions affecting the central or peripheral nervous system that develop in association with a systemic neoplasm without direct invasion by tumor. They may be associated with circulating antibodies that react with the affected neural tissue. (Intern Med 1996 Dec;35(12):925-9)
        • Maladie De Parkinson 0 questions A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
        • Syndrome Post-Poliomyélitique 0 questions A syndrome characterized by new neuromuscular symptoms that occur at least 15 years after clinical stability has been attained in patients with a prior history of symptomatic poliomyelitis. Clinical features include new muscular weakness and atrophy of the limbs, bulbar innervated musculature, and muscles of respiration, combined with excessive fatigue, joint pain, and reduced stamina. The process is marked by slow progression and periods of stabilization. (From Ann NY Acad Sci 1995 May 25;753:68-80)
        • Maladies 1 question A group of genetic, infectious, or sporadic degenerative human and animal nervous system disorders associated with abnormal PRIONS. These diseases are characterized by conversion of the normal prion protein to an abnormal configuration via a post-translational process. In humans, these conditions generally feature DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; and a fatal outcome. Pathologic features include a spongiform encephalopathy without evidence of inflammation. The older literature occasionally refers to these as unconventional SLOW VIRUS DISEASES. (From Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998 Nov 10;95(23):13363-83)
        • Syndrome De Shy-Drager 0 questions A progressive neurodegenerative condition of the central and autonomic nervous systems characterized by atrophy of the preganglionic lateral horn neurons of the thoracic spinal cord, which differentiates this condition from other forms of idiopathic orthostatic hypotension (HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC). This disease is generally considered a clinical variant of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY. Affected individuals present in the fifth or sixth decade with orthostasis and bladder dysfunction; and later develop FECAL INCONTINENCE; anhidrosis; ATAXIA; IMPOTENCE; and alterations of tone suggestive of basal ganglia dysfunction. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p536)
        • Dégénérescence Combinée Subaigüe 0 questions A neuropathy due to VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY or to excessive NITROUS OXIDE inhalation. It is associated with overproduction of the myelinolytic TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA.
        • Tauopathies 0 questions Neurodegenerative disorders involving deposition of abnormal tau protein isoforms (TAU PROTEINS) in neurons and glial cells in the brain. Pathological aggregations of tau proteins are associated with mutation of the tau gene on chromosome 17 in patients with ALZHEIMER DISEASE; DEMENTIA; PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS; progressive supranuclear palsy (SUPRANUCLEAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE); and corticobasal degeneration.
        • TDP-43 Proteinopathies 0 questions
      • Manifestations Neurologiques 2 questions Clinical signs and symptoms caused by nervous system injury or dysfunction.
      • Maladies Neuromusculaires 1 question Terme général comprenant : MALADIE DU NEURONE MOTEUR PERIPHERIQUE ; MALADIES DU SYSTEME NERVEUX PERIPHERIQUE ; et certaines MALADIES MUSCULAIRES. Les manifestations comprennent : AFAIBLISSEMENT MUSCULAIRE ; FASCICULATION ; ATROPHIE musculaire ; SPASME ; MyOKYMIE ; HYPERTONIE MUSCULAIRE, myalgies et HYPOTONIE MUSCULAIRE.
      • Syndromes Neurotoxiques 0 questions Troubles neurologiques provoqués par exposition à des substances toxiques, par ingestion, injection, application cutanée ou toute autre méthode. Sont inclues des conditions provoquées par les substances biologiques, chimiques et pharmaceutiques.
      • Troubles Du Sommeil 1 question Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
      • Traumatismes Du Système Nerveux 1 question Traumatic injuries to the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, autonomic nervous system, or neuromuscular system, including iatrogenic injuries induced by surgical procedures.
    • Maladies De L'Oeil 3 questions
    • Maladies Urogénitales De L'Homme 6 questions Maladies de l
    • Maladies De L'Appareil Urogénital Féminin Et Complications De La Grossesse 6 questions Pathological processes of the female URINARY TRACT, the reproductive system (GENITALIA, FEMALE), and disorders related to PREGNANCY.
    • Maladies Cardiovasculaires 7 questions Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
    • Hémopathies Et Maladies Lymphatiques 2 questions Ensemble des maladies hématologiques et des maladies du système lymphatique. Les hémopathies comprennent des troubles impliquant les éléments figurés (Agrégation hématie par exemple) et les composants chimiques (par exemple, anomalie protéine sang); les maladies lymphatiques comprennent les troubles concernant la lymphe, les ganglions lymphatiques et les lymphocytes.
    • Malformations Et Maladies Congénitales, Héréditaires Et Néonatales 1 question Maladies existantes à la naissance et souvent auparavant ou qui se développent durant le premier mois de vie (Nouveau-né, maladies), toutes causalités confondues. Parmi ces maladies, celles caractérisées par des difformités structurelles sont désignées par le terme malformations.
    • Maladies De La Peau Et Du Tissu Conjonctif 7 questions A collective term for diseases of the skin and its appendages and of connective tissue.
    • Maladies Métaboliques Et Nutritionnelles 2 questions A collective term for nutritional disorders resulting from poor absorption or nutritional imbalance, and metabolic disorders resulting from defects in biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) or breakdown (CATABOLISM) of endogenous substances.
    • Maladies Endocriniennes 1 question Pathological processes of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, and diseases resulting from abnormal level of available HORMONES.
    • Maladies Du Système Immunitaire 0 questions Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.
    • Troubles Liés 0 questions Disorders related to substance abuse, the side effects of a medication, toxin exposure, and ALCOHOL-RELATED DISORDERS.
    • Maladies Animales 1 question
    • Signes Et Symptômes, 6 questions Les états anormaux, anatomiques ou physiologiques et les manisfestations objectives ou subjectives d'une maladie, qui ne sont pas classifiés comme maladie ou syndrome.
    • Maladies Professionnelles 0 questions Maladies dues à des facteurs liés à l'emploi d'une personne. (Tiré de Dorland, 28th ed)
    • Troubles Liés2 0 questions Disorders related to substance abuse, the side effects of a medication, toxin exposure, and ALCOHOL-RELATED DISORDERS.
    • Plaies Et Lésions Traumatiques 1 question Dommages infligés au corps résultatant, directement ou indirectement, d'une force extérieure, avec ou sans rupture de la continuité structurelle.
  • Produits chimiques et pharmaceutiques 79 questions Any substance used in or resulting from a reaction involving changes to atoms or molecules, especially one derived artificially for practical use and any synthetic, semisynthetic, or natural chemical substance used in the treatment, prevention, or diagnosis of disease, or for other medical reasons.
  • Techniques et équipements analytiques, diagnostiques et thérapeutiques 36 questions
  • Psychiatrie et psychologie 14 questions The branches of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness and the scientific study of all forms of human and animal behaviour, sometimes concerned with the methods through which behaviour can be modified.
  • Phénomènes et processus 17 questions
  • Disciplines et professions 9 questions
  • Anthropologie, enseignement, sociologie et phénoménes sociaux 5 questions
  • Technologie, industrie et agriculture 1 question
  • Sciences humaines 6 questions
  • Sciences De L'Information 1 question Champ de la connaissance, théorie, et technologie, traitant de la collection de faits et de calculs, ainsi que des processus et des méthodes impliqués dans leur manipulation, stockage, diffusion, publication, et recherche. Il inclut la communication, l'édition, la bibliothéconomie, et l'informatique.
  • Individus 5 questions
  • Santé 69 questions
  • Caractéristiques d'une publication 2 questions
  • Lieux géographiques 9 questions The study of the natural features of the earth's surface, including topography, climate, soil, vegetation, etc, and man's response to them.
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