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  • Anatomie 89 questions
    • Régions Du Corps 3 questions Anatomical areas of the body.
    • Appareil Locomoteur 7 questions The MUSCLES, bones (BONE AND BONES), and CARTILAGE of the body.
    • Système Digestif 15 questions A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
    • Appareil Respiratoire 5 questions The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
    • Appareil Urogénital 13 questions All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.
    • Système Endocrine 2 questions The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.
    • Système Cardiovasculaire 4 questions Le coeur et les vaisseaux sanguins par lesquels le sang est pompé et circule à travers le corps.
    • Système Nerveux 2 questions The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
      • Système Nerveux Central 1 question The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
      • Ganglions 0 questions Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
      • Réseau Nerveux 0 questions A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
      • Tissu Nerveux 0 questions
      • Voies Nerveuses 0 questions Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
      • Névroglie 1 question The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
      • Neurones 0 questions The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
      • Système Neuroendocrine 0 questions A system of neurons that has the specialized function to produce and secrete hormones, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an endocrine organ or system.
      • Agents Du Système Nerveux Périphérique 0 questions Drugs that act principally at one or more sites within the peripheral neuroeffector systems, the autonomic system, and motor nerve-skeletal system. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p75)
        • Système Nerveux Autonome 0 questions The enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic nervous systems taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the central nervous system, especially the hypothalamus and the solitary nucleus, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS; these and related central and sensory structures are sometimes (but not here) considered to be part of the autonomic nervous system itself.
          • Voies Nerveuses Autonomes 0 questions Nerves and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system structures which regulate the autonomic nervous system are not included.
          • Système Nerveux Entérique 0 questions Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)
          • Ganglions Du Système Nerveux Autonome 0 questions Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.
          • Système Nerveux Parasympathique 0 questions The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
            • Nerf Facial 0 questions The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and salivary glands, and convey afferent information for taste from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and for touch from the external ear.
            • Paraganglions Parasympathiques 0 questions Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.
            • Nerf Glossopharyngien 0 questions 9ème nerf crânien. Le nerf glossopharyngeal est un mélange de nerf psychomoteur et de nerf sensoriel ; il conduit les efferents somatiques et autonomes aussi bien que les afférents généraux, spéciaux, et viscéraux. Parmi les raccordements, il y a les fibres motrices au muscle stylo-pharyngien, les fibres parasympathiques aux glandes parotides, le général et les afférents du goût du tiers postérieur de la langue, le nasopharynx, et le palais, aux afférents des barorécepteurs et des chimiorécepteurs du sinus (ou plexus) carotidien.
            • Nerf Oculomoteur 0 questions 3ème nerf crânien. Le nerf moteur oculaire commun envoie des fibres motrices aux muscles releveurs de la paupière, aux rectus supérieur et inférieur et aux muscles obliques inférieurs de l'oeil. Il envoie également les efférents parasympathiques (par l'intermédiaire du ganglion ciliaire) aux muscles commandant la constriction et l'accomodation nerveuse pupillaires. Les fibres motrices proviennent du noyau oculomoteur du mésencéphale.
            • Neurofibres Parasympathiques Postganglionnaires 0 questions Nerve fibers which project from parasympathetic ganglia to synapses on target organs. Parasympathetic postganglionic fibers use acetylcholine as transmitter. They may also release peptide cotransmitters.
            • Nerf Vague 0 questions The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
              • Nerfs Laryngés 0 questions Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
                • Nerf Laryngé Récurrent 0 questions Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerves originate more caudally than the superior laryngeal nerves and follow different paths on the right and left sides. They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
              • Ganglion Inférieur Du Nerf Vague 0 questions The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.
          • Système Nerveux Sympathique 0 questions The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
        • Ganglions Sensitifs 0 questions Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.
        • Terminaisons Nerveuses 0 questions Specialized terminations of peripheral neurons. Nerve endings include NEUROEFFECTOR JUNCTION(s) by which neurons activate target organs and sensory receptors (see RECEPTORS, SENSORY) which transduce information from the various sensory modalities and send it centrally in the nervous system. Presynaptic nerve endings are PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
        • Nerfs Périphériques 0 questions The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
        • Sensory Receptor Cells 0 questions
      • Synapses 0 questions Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate through direct electrical connections which are sometimes called electrical synapses; these are not included here but rather in GAP JUNCTIONS.
    • Organes Des Sens 3 questions
    • Tissus 3 questions Collections of differentiated CELLS, such as EPITHELIUM; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; MUSCLES; and NERVE TISSUE. Tissues are cooperatively arranged to form organs with specialized functions such as RESPIRATION; DIGESTION; REPRODUCTION; MOVEMENT; and others.
    • Cellules 3 questions Endocrine cells found throughout the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and in islets of the PANCREAS. D cells secrete SOMATOSTATIN that acts in both an endocrine and paracrine manner. Somatostatin acts on a variety of tissues including the PITUITARY GLAND; gastrointestinal tract; pancreas; and KIDNEY by inhibiting the release of hormones, such as GROWTH HORMONE; GASTRIN; INSULIN; and RENIN.
    • Liquides Et Sécrétions Biologiques 2 questions Liquid substances produced by living organisms to fulfill specific functions or excreted as waste. Secretions do not include hormones or enzymes.
    • Anatomie Animale 3 questions Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
    • Système Stomatognathique 4 questions The mouth, teeth, jaws, pharynx, and related structures as they relate to mastication, deglutition, and speech.
    • Systèmes Sanguin Et Immunitaire 1 question Organs involved in the production of BLOOD, including the cellular and the molecular components essential in providing defense against foreign organisms or substances.
    • Structures Embryonnaires 1 question The anatomical parts that make up an organism in the early stages of development.
    • Système Tégumentaire 0 questions The outer covering of the body composed of the SKIN and the skin appendages, which are the HAIR, the NAILS; and the SEBACEOUS GLANDS and the SWEAT GLANDS and their ducts.
    • Plant Structures 2 questions
    • Fungal Structures 0 questions
    • Bacterial Structures 2 questions
    • Viral Structures 0 questions
  • Organismes 29 questions Any living biological entity, such as an animal, plant, fungus, or bacterium.
  • Maladies 155 questions Any impairment of normal physiological function affecting all or part of an organism, esp a specific pathological change caused by infection, stress, etc, producing characteristic symptoms; illness or sickness in general.
  • Produits chimiques et pharmaceutiques 79 questions Any substance used in or resulting from a reaction involving changes to atoms or molecules, especially one derived artificially for practical use and any synthetic, semisynthetic, or natural chemical substance used in the treatment, prevention, or diagnosis of disease, or for other medical reasons.
  • Techniques et équipements analytiques, diagnostiques et thérapeutiques 36 questions
  • Psychiatrie et psychologie 13 questions The branches of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness and the scientific study of all forms of human and animal behaviour, sometimes concerned with the methods through which behaviour can be modified.
  • Phénomènes et processus 16 questions
  • Disciplines et professions 9 questions
  • Anthropologie, enseignement, sociologie et phénoménes sociaux 4 questions
  • Technologie, industrie et agriculture 1 question
  • Sciences humaines 6 questions
  • Sciences De L'Information 1 question Champ de la connaissance, théorie, et technologie, traitant de la collection de faits et de calculs, ainsi que des processus et des méthodes impliqués dans leur manipulation, stockage, diffusion, publication, et recherche. Il inclut la communication, l'édition, la bibliothéconomie, et l'informatique.
  • Individus 5 questions
  • Santé 49 questions
  • Caractéristiques d'une publication 2 questions
  • Lieux géographiques 9 questions The study of the natural features of the earth's surface, including topography, climate, soil, vegetation, etc, and man's response to them.
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