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  • Anatomie 93 questions
    • Régions Du Corps 3 questions Anatomical areas of the body.
    • Appareil Locomoteur 7 questions The MUSCLES, bones (BONE AND BONES), and CARTILAGE of the body.
    • Système Digestif 15 questions A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
    • Appareil Respiratoire 5 questions The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
    • Appareil Urogénital 13 questions All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.
    • Système Endocrine 2 questions The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.
    • Système Cardiovasculaire 4 questions Le coeur et les vaisseaux sanguins par lesquels le sang est pompé et circule à travers le corps.
    • Système Nerveux 2 questions The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
    • Organes Des Sens 3 questions
    • Tissus 3 questions Collections of differentiated CELLS, such as EPITHELIUM; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; MUSCLES; and NERVE TISSUE. Tissues are cooperatively arranged to form organs with specialized functions such as RESPIRATION; DIGESTION; REPRODUCTION; MOVEMENT; and others.
    • Cellules 3 questions Endocrine cells found throughout the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and in islets of the PANCREAS. D cells secrete SOMATOSTATIN that acts in both an endocrine and paracrine manner. Somatostatin acts on a variety of tissues including the PITUITARY GLAND; gastrointestinal tract; pancreas; and KIDNEY by inhibiting the release of hormones, such as GROWTH HORMONE; GASTRIN; INSULIN; and RENIN.
      • Acinar Cells 0 questions
      • Cellules Productrices D'Anticorps 0 questions Cellules des lignées lymphoïdes qui peuvent réagir avec l'antigène pour produire les substances spécifiques de ces cellules appelés des anticorps. De diverses sous-populations de cellules, souvent lymphocytes B, peuvent être définies, basées sur les différentes classes des immunoglobulines qu'elles synthétisent.
      • Cellules Présentatrices D'Antigène 0 questions Groupe hétérogène de cellules immunocompétentes qui induisent l'immuno-réaction cellulaire en traitant et en présentant des antigènes au récepteur des cellules T. Les cellules de présentation de l'antigène traditionnelles incluent des macrophages; des cellules dendritiques; des cellules de langerhans ; et des lymphocytes B. Des cellules dendritiques folliculaires (cellule folliculaire dentritique) sont également considérées comme des cellules de présentation de l'antigène par quelques auteurs.
      • Blastomères 0 questions The undifferentiated cells produced by early cleavages of the fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA. Blastomeres are formed during the MORULA and the BLASTULA stages of the preimplantation EMBRYO.
      • Cellules Sanguines 2 questions
      • Cellules De La Moelle Osseuse 0 questions Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES), STROMAL CELLS, MEGAKARYOCYTES, and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
      • Cellules Cancéreuses En Culture 0 questions Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
      • Cellules Immobilisées 0 questions Microbial, plant, or animal cells which are immobilized by attachment to solid structures, usually a column matrix. A common use of immobilized cells is in biotechnology for the bioconversion of a substrate to a particular product. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
      • Structures Cellulaires 0 questions Components of a cell.
        • Membrane Cellulaire 0 questions The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
          • Structures De La Membrane Cellulaire 0 questions Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.
            • Cell-Derived Microparticles 0 questions
            • Jonctions Cellule-Matrice 0 questions Specialized areas at the CELL MEMBRANE where a cell attaches to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX or other substratum.
            • Puits Tapissés 0 questions Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.
            • Glycocalyx 0 questions Zone riche en hydrate de carbone à la surface cellulaire. Cette zone peut être visualisée grâce à différents colorants ainsi que du fait de son affinité pour les lectines. Le glycocalyx contient aussi des glycoprotéines, et des protéoglycanes ayant été secrétés dans l'espace extracellulaire, puis adsorbés sur la surface cellulaire.
            • Jonctions Intercellulaires 0 questions Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
              • Jonctions Adhérentes 0 questions Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of MICROFILAMENTS attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.
              • Desmosomes 0 questions A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
              • Jonctions Communicantes 0 questions Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.
              • Immunological Synapses 0 questions
              • Plasmodesmes 0 questions Membrane-like channels of cytoplasm connecting adjacent plant cells. Plasmodesmata connect through pores in the CELL WALL and associate with the CYTOSKELETON machinery. They are essential for intercellular transport and communication.
              • Synapses 0 questions Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate through direct electrical connections which are sometimes called electrical synapses; these are not included here but rather in GAP JUNCTIONS.
              • Jonctions Serrées 0 questions Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)
            • Microdomaines Membranaires 0 questions Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.
            • Gaine De Myéline 0 questions The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
            • Enveloppe Nucléaire 0 questions The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
            • Phycobilisomes 0 questions Light energy harvesting structures attached to the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of CYANOBACTERIA and red algae (ALGAE, RED). These multiprotein complexes contain pigments (PHYCOBILIPROTEINS) that transfer light energy to chlorophyll a.
            • Noeuds De Ranvier 0 questions Regularly spaced gaps in the myelin sheaths of peripheral axons. Ranvier's nodes allow saltatory conduction, that is, jumping of impulses from node to node, which is faster and more energetically favorable than continuous conduction.
          • Membrane 0 questions The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
          • Membranes Intracellulaires 0 questions Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
          • Membrane Pourpre 0 questions Functionally and structurally differentiated, purple-pigmented regions of the cytoplasmic membrane of some strains of Halobacterium halobium. The membrane develops under anaerobic conditions and is made almost entirely of the purple pigment BACTERIORHODOPSINS. (From Singleton & Sainsbury Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
          • Sarcolemme 0 questions The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
          • Membranes Synaptiques 0 questions Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.
        • Prolongements Cytoplasmiques 0 questions Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.
        • Paroi Cellulaire 0 questions The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
        • Chromosomes 0 questions In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
        • Espace Extracellulaire 0 questions Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
        • Corps D'Inclusion 0 questions A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or Mallory bodies), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
        • Espace Intracellulaire 0 questions Secteur à l'intérieur des CELLULES.
        • Fractions Subcellulaires 0 questions Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
      • Cellules Chromaffines 0 questions Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.
      • Cellules Du Tissu Conjonctif 0 questions A group of cells that includes FIBROBLASTS, cartilage cells, ADIPOCYTES, smooth muscle cells, and bone cells.
      • Endocrine Cells 0 questions
      • Cellules 0 questions Endocrine cells found throughout the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and in islets of the PANCREAS. D cells secrete SOMATOSTATIN that acts in both an endocrine and paracrine manner. Somatostatin acts on a variety of tissues including the PITUITARY GLAND; gastrointestinal tract; pancreas; and KIDNEY by inhibiting the release of hormones, such as GROWTH HORMONE; GASTRIN; INSULIN; and RENIN.
      • Cellules2 0 questions Endocrine cells found throughout the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and in islets of the PANCREAS. D cells secrete SOMATOSTATIN that acts in both an endocrine and paracrine manner. Somatostatin acts on a variety of tissues including the PITUITARY GLAND; gastrointestinal tract; pancreas; and KIDNEY by inhibiting the release of hormones, such as GROWTH HORMONE; GASTRIN; INSULIN; and RENIN.
      • Cellules Eucaryotes 0 questions Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.
      • Cellules Germinales 0 questions The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms.
      • Cellules Géantes 0 questions Multinucleated cells (fused macrophages), characteristic of granulomatous inflammation, which form around exogenous material in the skin. They are similar in appearance to Langhans giant cells (GIANT CELLS, LANGHANS), but foreign-body giant cells have more abundant chromatin and their nuclei are scattered in an irregular pattern in the cytoplasm.
      • Hepatic Stellate Cells 0 questions
      • Mesophyll Cells 0 questions
      • Cellules Musculaires 0 questions Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.
      • Cellules Myéloïdes 0 questions The classes of BONE MARROW-derived blood cells in the monocytic series (MONOCYTES and their precursors) and granulocytic series (GRANULOCYTES and their precursors).
      • Myoblastes 0 questions Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
      • Neoplastic Cells, Circulating 0 questions
      • Névroglie 0 questions The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
      • Neurones 0 questions The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
      • Cellules Oxyphiles 0 questions Large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askenazy cells.
      • Pancreatic Stellate Cells 0 questions
      • Péricytes 0 questions Slender, contractile, mesenchymal-like cells found in close association with capillary walls. They are relatively undifferentiated and may become fibroblasts, macrophages, or smooth muscle cells. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
      • Phagocytes 0 questions
      • Plant Cells 0 questions
      • Cellules Procaryotes 0 questions Cells, such as those of bacteria and the blue green algae, which lack a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.
      • Protoplastes 0 questions
      • Cellules De Reed-Sternberg 0 questions Large cells of unknown origin, usually multinucleate, whose presence is the common histologic characteristic of HODGKIN DISEASE.
      • Sphéroplastes 0 questions Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.
      • Spores 0 questions Eléments reproducteurs des organismes inférieurs, tels que les bactéries, les protozoaires, les champignons et les plantes cryptogamiques.
      • Cellules Souches 0 questions Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
      • Thymocytes 0 questions
    • Liquides Et Sécrétions Biologiques 2 questions Liquid substances produced by living organisms to fulfill specific functions or excreted as waste. Secretions do not include hormones or enzymes.
    • Anatomie Animale 3 questions Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
    • Système Stomatognathique 4 questions The mouth, teeth, jaws, pharynx, and related structures as they relate to mastication, deglutition, and speech.
    • Systèmes Sanguin Et Immunitaire 1 question Organs involved in the production of BLOOD, including the cellular and the molecular components essential in providing defense against foreign organisms or substances.
    • Structures Embryonnaires 1 question The anatomical parts that make up an organism in the early stages of development.
    • Système Tégumentaire 0 questions The outer covering of the body composed of the SKIN and the skin appendages, which are the HAIR, the NAILS; and the SEBACEOUS GLANDS and the SWEAT GLANDS and their ducts.
    • Plant Structures 2 questions
    • Fungal Structures 0 questions
    • Bacterial Structures 2 questions
    • Viral Structures 0 questions
  • Organismes 37 questions Any living biological entity, such as an animal, plant, fungus, or bacterium.
  • Maladies 166 questions Any impairment of normal physiological function affecting all or part of an organism, esp a specific pathological change caused by infection, stress, etc, producing characteristic symptoms; illness or sickness in general.
  • Produits chimiques et pharmaceutiques 79 questions Any substance used in or resulting from a reaction involving changes to atoms or molecules, especially one derived artificially for practical use and any synthetic, semisynthetic, or natural chemical substance used in the treatment, prevention, or diagnosis of disease, or for other medical reasons.
  • Techniques et équipements analytiques, diagnostiques et thérapeutiques 36 questions
  • Psychiatrie et psychologie 14 questions The branches of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness and the scientific study of all forms of human and animal behaviour, sometimes concerned with the methods through which behaviour can be modified.
  • Phénomènes et processus 17 questions
  • Disciplines et professions 9 questions
  • Anthropologie, enseignement, sociologie et phénoménes sociaux 5 questions
  • Technologie, industrie et agriculture 1 question
  • Sciences humaines 6 questions
  • Sciences De L'Information 1 question Champ de la connaissance, théorie, et technologie, traitant de la collection de faits et de calculs, ainsi que des processus et des méthodes impliqués dans leur manipulation, stockage, diffusion, publication, et recherche. Il inclut la communication, l'édition, la bibliothéconomie, et l'informatique.
  • Individus 5 questions
  • Santé 68 questions
  • Caractéristiques d'une publication 2 questions
  • Lieux géographiques 9 questions The study of the natural features of the earth's surface, including topography, climate, soil, vegetation, etc, and man's response to them.
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