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  • Anatomie 93 questions
    • Régions Du Corps 3 questions Anatomical areas of the body.
    • Appareil Locomoteur 7 questions The MUSCLES, bones (BONE AND BONES), and CARTILAGE of the body.
    • Système Digestif 15 questions A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
    • Appareil Respiratoire 5 questions The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
    • Appareil Urogénital 13 questions All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.
    • Système Endocrine 2 questions The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.
    • Système Cardiovasculaire 4 questions Le coeur et les vaisseaux sanguins par lesquels le sang est pompé et circule à travers le corps.
    • Système Nerveux 2 questions The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
    • Organes Des Sens 3 questions
    • Tissus 3 questions Collections of differentiated CELLS, such as EPITHELIUM; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; MUSCLES; and NERVE TISSUE. Tissues are cooperatively arranged to form organs with specialized functions such as RESPIRATION; DIGESTION; REPRODUCTION; MOVEMENT; and others.
    • Cellules 3 questions Endocrine cells found throughout the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and in islets of the PANCREAS. D cells secrete SOMATOSTATIN that acts in both an endocrine and paracrine manner. Somatostatin acts on a variety of tissues including the PITUITARY GLAND; gastrointestinal tract; pancreas; and KIDNEY by inhibiting the release of hormones, such as GROWTH HORMONE; GASTRIN; INSULIN; and RENIN.
      • Acinar Cells 0 questions
      • Cellules Productrices D'Anticorps 0 questions Cellules des lignées lymphoïdes qui peuvent réagir avec l'antigène pour produire les substances spécifiques de ces cellules appelés des anticorps. De diverses sous-populations de cellules, souvent lymphocytes B, peuvent être définies, basées sur les différentes classes des immunoglobulines qu'elles synthétisent.
      • Cellules Présentatrices D'Antigène 0 questions Groupe hétérogène de cellules immunocompétentes qui induisent l'immuno-réaction cellulaire en traitant et en présentant des antigènes au récepteur des cellules T. Les cellules de présentation de l'antigène traditionnelles incluent des macrophages; des cellules dendritiques; des cellules de langerhans ; et des lymphocytes B. Des cellules dendritiques folliculaires (cellule folliculaire dentritique) sont également considérées comme des cellules de présentation de l'antigène par quelques auteurs.
      • Blastomères 0 questions The undifferentiated cells produced by early cleavages of the fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA. Blastomeres are formed during the MORULA and the BLASTULA stages of the preimplantation EMBRYO.
      • Cellules Sanguines 2 questions
      • Cellules De La Moelle Osseuse 0 questions Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES), STROMAL CELLS, MEGAKARYOCYTES, and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
      • Cellules Cancéreuses En Culture 0 questions Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
      • Cellules Immobilisées 0 questions Microbial, plant, or animal cells which are immobilized by attachment to solid structures, usually a column matrix. A common use of immobilized cells is in biotechnology for the bioconversion of a substrate to a particular product. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
      • Structures Cellulaires 0 questions Components of a cell.
      • Cellules Chromaffines 0 questions Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.
      • Cellules Du Tissu Conjonctif 0 questions A group of cells that includes FIBROBLASTS, cartilage cells, ADIPOCYTES, smooth muscle cells, and bone cells.
      • Endocrine Cells 0 questions
      • Cellules 0 questions Endocrine cells found throughout the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and in islets of the PANCREAS. D cells secrete SOMATOSTATIN that acts in both an endocrine and paracrine manner. Somatostatin acts on a variety of tissues including the PITUITARY GLAND; gastrointestinal tract; pancreas; and KIDNEY by inhibiting the release of hormones, such as GROWTH HORMONE; GASTRIN; INSULIN; and RENIN.
        • Améloblastes 0 questions Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN. Their functions include contribution to the development of the dentinoenamel junction by the deposition of a layer of the matrix, thus producing the foundation for the prisms (the structural units of the DENTAL ENAMEL), and production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
        • Cellules Caco-2 0 questions Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
        • Cellules Principales De L'Estomac 0 questions Epithelial cells that line the basal half of the GASTRIC GLANDS. Chief cells synthesize and export an inactive enzyme PEPSINOGEN which is converted into the highly proteolytic enzyme PEPSIN in the acid environment of the STOMACH.
        • Cellules Cho 0 questions CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
        • Chromatophores 0 questions The large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates which actively disperse and aggregate their pigment granules. These cells include MELANOPHORES, erythrophores, xanthophores, leucophores and iridiophores. (In algae, chromatophores refer to CHLOROPLASTS. In phototrophic bacteria chromatophores refer to membranous organelles (BACTERIAL CHROMATOPHORES).)
        • Cellules Corticotropes 0 questions Anterior pituitary cells that produce ADRENOCORTICOTROPHIC HORMONE.
        • Cellules Dendritiques 0 questions Cellules Immunocompétentes des systèmes lymphoïdes, hémopoietic et de la peau. Elles s'appellent également les cellules interdigitales, réticulaires, et voilées. Elles fonctionnent morphologiquement et phenotypiquement en traitant des antigènes ou en les présentant aux cellules-T, stimulant de ce fait l'immunité cellulaire.
        • Cellules Endothéliales 0 questions Cellules très spécialisées . Elles sont polygonales et sont reliées par des jonctions serrées. Les jonctions serrées peuvent être perméables à des macromolécules spécifiques, qui sont alors transportées à travers la couche endothéliale.
        • Entérocytes 0 questions Cellules terminales différenciées constituant l'essentiel de la surface externe de l'épithélium intestinal (voir muqueuse intestinale). A la différence des cellules caliciformes, elles ne produisent pas ni ne secrètent de mucines, et ne secrètent pas non plus de défensines commme les cellules de Paneth.
        • Cellules Entéroendocrines 0 questions Cells found throughout the lining of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that contain and secrete regulatory PEPTIDE HORMONES and/or BIOGENIC AMINES.
        • Cellules Caliciformes 0 questions Cellules épithéliales qui produisent et secrétent des mucines.
        • Cellules Gonadotropes 0 questions Anterior pituitary cells that can produce both FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
        • Cellules De La Granulosa 0 questions Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).
        • HEK293 Cells 0 questions
        • Cellules Hela 0 questions The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks (one of several pseudonyms). These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
          • Cellules Kb 0 questions This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.
        • Hépatocytes 0 questions The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
        • Cellules Ht29 0 questions Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.
        • Kératinocytes 0 questions Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
        • Cellules De Soutien Du Labyrinthe 0 questions Cells forming a framework supporting the organ of Corti. Specific cells are those of Claudius, Deiters and Hensen.
        • Cellules Lactotropes 0 questions Anterior pituitary cells that produce PROLACTIN.
        • Cellules De Leydig 0 questions Cellules productrices de stéroïdes situées dans le tissu interstitiel du testicule. Elles sont sous le contrôle d'une hormone hypophysaire, de l'hormone lutéinisante ou d'hormone stimulant les cellules interstitielles. La testotérone est le principal androgène produit.
        • Cellules Llc-Pk1 0 questions Epithelial cell line originally derived from porcine kidneys. It is used for pharmacologic and metabolic studies.
        • Cellules Lutéales 0 questions PROGESTERONE-producing cells in the CORPUS LUTEUM. The large luteal cells derive from the GRANULOSA CELLS. The small luteal cells derive from the THECA CELLS.
        • Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells 0 questions
        • Mélanocytes 0 questions Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.
        • Cellules Mélanotropes 0 questions Neuroendocrine cells in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY. They produce MELANOCYTE STIMULATING HORMONES and other peptides from the post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC).
        • Cellules De Merkel 0 questions Modified epidermal cells located in the stratum basale. They are found mostly in areas where sensory perception is acute, such as the fingertips. Merkel cells are closely associated with an expanded terminal bulb of an afferent myelinated nerve fiber. Do not confuse with Merkel's corpuscle which is a combination of a neuron and an epidermal cell.
        • Cellules Neuroépithéliales 0 questions Cellules d'origine épithéliale ayant des fonctions sensorielles spécifiques. Elles comprennent les cellules qui se trouvent dans : les BOURGEONS DU GO
        • Cellules De Paneth 0 questions Differentiated epithelial cells of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA, found in the basal part of the intestinal crypts of Lieberkuhn. Paneth cells secrete GROWTH FACTORS, digestive enzymes such as LYSOZYME and antimicrobial peptides such as cryptdins (ALPHA-DEFENSINS) into the crypt lumen.
        • Cellules Pariétales Gastriques 0 questions Cellules des glandes gastriques qui sécrétent l'acide chlorhydrique gastrique et le facteur intrinsèque.
        • Pneumocytes 0 questions
        • Podocytes 0 questions Cellules épithéliales hautement différentiées au niveau de la couche viscérale de la CAPSULE DE BOWMAN du REIN. Composées d'un corps cellulaire avec des PROLONGEMENTS de la SURFACE CELLULAIRE et des prolongements secondaires en forme de doigt nommés pédicelles. Ils enveloppent les capillaires du GLOMERULE RENAL avec leurs prolongements de surface formant une structure de filtration. Les pédicelles des podocytes voisins s
        • Cellules De Sertoli 0 questions Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. Their tight junctions with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.
        • Cellules Somatotropes 0 questions Anterior pituitary cells that produce GROWTH HORMONE.
        • Cellules Thyréotropes 0 questions Anterior pituitary cells that produce THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE.
        • Cellules Vero 0 questions A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
      • Cellules2 0 questions Endocrine cells found throughout the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and in islets of the PANCREAS. D cells secrete SOMATOSTATIN that acts in both an endocrine and paracrine manner. Somatostatin acts on a variety of tissues including the PITUITARY GLAND; gastrointestinal tract; pancreas; and KIDNEY by inhibiting the release of hormones, such as GROWTH HORMONE; GASTRIN; INSULIN; and RENIN.
      • Cellules Eucaryotes 0 questions Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.
      • Cellules Germinales 0 questions The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms.
      • Cellules Géantes 0 questions Multinucleated cells (fused macrophages), characteristic of granulomatous inflammation, which form around exogenous material in the skin. They are similar in appearance to Langhans giant cells (GIANT CELLS, LANGHANS), but foreign-body giant cells have more abundant chromatin and their nuclei are scattered in an irregular pattern in the cytoplasm.
      • Hepatic Stellate Cells 0 questions
      • Mesophyll Cells 0 questions
      • Cellules Musculaires 0 questions Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.
      • Cellules Myéloïdes 0 questions The classes of BONE MARROW-derived blood cells in the monocytic series (MONOCYTES and their precursors) and granulocytic series (GRANULOCYTES and their precursors).
      • Myoblastes 0 questions Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
      • Neoplastic Cells, Circulating 0 questions
      • Névroglie 0 questions The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
      • Neurones 0 questions The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
      • Cellules Oxyphiles 0 questions Large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askenazy cells.
      • Pancreatic Stellate Cells 0 questions
      • Péricytes 0 questions Slender, contractile, mesenchymal-like cells found in close association with capillary walls. They are relatively undifferentiated and may become fibroblasts, macrophages, or smooth muscle cells. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
      • Phagocytes 0 questions
      • Plant Cells 0 questions
      • Cellules Procaryotes 0 questions Cells, such as those of bacteria and the blue green algae, which lack a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.
      • Protoplastes 0 questions
      • Cellules De Reed-Sternberg 0 questions Large cells of unknown origin, usually multinucleate, whose presence is the common histologic characteristic of HODGKIN DISEASE.
      • Sphéroplastes 0 questions Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.
      • Spores 0 questions Eléments reproducteurs des organismes inférieurs, tels que les bactéries, les protozoaires, les champignons et les plantes cryptogamiques.
      • Cellules Souches 0 questions Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
      • Thymocytes 0 questions
    • Liquides Et Sécrétions Biologiques 2 questions Liquid substances produced by living organisms to fulfill specific functions or excreted as waste. Secretions do not include hormones or enzymes.
    • Anatomie Animale 3 questions Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
    • Système Stomatognathique 4 questions The mouth, teeth, jaws, pharynx, and related structures as they relate to mastication, deglutition, and speech.
    • Systèmes Sanguin Et Immunitaire 1 question Organs involved in the production of BLOOD, including the cellular and the molecular components essential in providing defense against foreign organisms or substances.
    • Structures Embryonnaires 1 question The anatomical parts that make up an organism in the early stages of development.
    • Système Tégumentaire 0 questions The outer covering of the body composed of the SKIN and the skin appendages, which are the HAIR, the NAILS; and the SEBACEOUS GLANDS and the SWEAT GLANDS and their ducts.
    • Plant Structures 2 questions
    • Fungal Structures 0 questions
    • Bacterial Structures 2 questions
    • Viral Structures 0 questions
  • Organismes 38 questions Any living biological entity, such as an animal, plant, fungus, or bacterium.
  • Maladies 170 questions Any impairment of normal physiological function affecting all or part of an organism, esp a specific pathological change caused by infection, stress, etc, producing characteristic symptoms; illness or sickness in general.
  • Produits chimiques et pharmaceutiques 79 questions Any substance used in or resulting from a reaction involving changes to atoms or molecules, especially one derived artificially for practical use and any synthetic, semisynthetic, or natural chemical substance used in the treatment, prevention, or diagnosis of disease, or for other medical reasons.
  • Techniques et équipements analytiques, diagnostiques et thérapeutiques 36 questions
  • Psychiatrie et psychologie 14 questions The branches of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness and the scientific study of all forms of human and animal behaviour, sometimes concerned with the methods through which behaviour can be modified.
  • Phénomènes et processus 17 questions
  • Disciplines et professions 10 questions
  • Anthropologie, enseignement, sociologie et phénoménes sociaux 5 questions
  • Technologie, industrie et agriculture 1 question
  • Sciences humaines 6 questions
  • Sciences De L'Information 1 question Champ de la connaissance, théorie, et technologie, traitant de la collection de faits et de calculs, ainsi que des processus et des méthodes impliqués dans leur manipulation, stockage, diffusion, publication, et recherche. Il inclut la communication, l'édition, la bibliothéconomie, et l'informatique.
  • Individus 5 questions
  • Santé 69 questions
  • Caractéristiques d'une publication 2 questions
  • Lieux géographiques 9 questions The study of the natural features of the earth's surface, including topography, climate, soil, vegetation, etc, and man's response to them.
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